Why Would A 70 Year Old Man Need Genetic Testing Little Did We Know That Prostate Cancer is the Most Common Non-Skin Cancer Amongst Men

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Little Did We Know That Prostate Cancer is the Most Common Non-Skin Cancer Amongst Men

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer, it has overtaken lung cancer as the most common male cancer followed by skin cancer.

Statistically, 80 percent of these occur in men over the age of 65. Although this cancer also occurs in young people, it is very rare under the age of 50. As men get older, the prostate can develop problems.

Every year, one in six American men develops this condition throughout his life. Little did we know that a man is 33% more likely to develop prostate cancer than a woman is to develop breast cancer.

In 2004, an estimated 234,000 new men were diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States. This makes it the most common cancer among American men, next to skin cancer. More than 27,000 deaths from prostate cancer are estimated to occur each year.

One new case every 2 1/2 minutes. One new case every 150 seconds.

In the UK, around 35,000 men are diagnosed and around 10,000 men die from it each year. This means that one person dies every hour in the UK.

Today, nearly two million men are battling prostate cancer, and in the next ten years, as more and more men reach the stage of developing prostate cancer, nearly three million more will be forced to join the battle. It is estimated that by 2012, the number of new patients in the US is expected to rise to more than 300,000 per year by 2012.

One new case every 100 seconds. One person dies every 13 minutes.

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a male sexual gland, the size of a walnut, located behind the pubic bone in front of the rectum that surrounds the lower part of the bladder. The body that carries urine (urine) passes through the prostate. At birth, the size of the gland is as small as this and continues to grow until the age of 20 when a man grows up. Male hormones (called androgens) are responsible for this growth. The size of the gland will not change until 45, when it will start to grow again.

Its main function is to produce a thick fluid that nourishes the sperm, and to help the sperm move through the urethra and out of the penis to reach and attach to the egg. Although the prostate is not the main part of the urinary system, it is very important for urinary health.

In older men, the part of the prostate that surrounds the urethra may continue to grow. This causes BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) which causes urinary problems. BPH is a condition that needs to be treated, but it is not cancer.

What is prostate cancer?

The body is made up of different types of cells. In most cases, cells grow, divide and then die. Sometimes, cells change and start growing and dividing faster than normal. Instead of dying, these abnormal cells accumulate and form tumors. If these tumors are cancerous or so-called malignant tumors, they can invade and kill healthy tissue in the body. From these tumors, cancer cells can spread (spread) and form new tumors in other parts of the body. In contrast, non-cancerous or benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

They are abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably and form lumps or bumps (enlarged masses) on the surface of the prostate gland. Sometimes, the enlarged tissue is benign and the disease is called prostate Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH). In some cases, malignant cancerous cells show growth in the tissue, and this is called prostate cancer or cancer.

Because of its proximity to the bladder, prostate disease can interfere with urination and cause bladder or kidney problems. It is also found near the nerves that cause erections and therefore can interfere with sexual function.

Although 70 percent of all cases occur in men over the age of 65, doctors recommend that every man over the age of 50 should be tested for PSA and genitalia. African-Americans have twice the rate of prostate cancer than Caucasian Americans, so they should start screening at age 40. The same is true if you have

family history.

A third of men over the age of 50 have cancerous cells within the prostate and almost all men over the age of 80 have a small amount of prostate cancer. In most men, these cancers grow slowly, especially in older men, and do not cause any problems. Even without treatment, most of them will not die of prostate cancer, but who will, but instead they will die due to other causes unrelated to the disease before it is diagnosed.

However, like many types of cancer, if left untreated prostate cancer can be aggressive, grow quickly and can spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body, especially lymph nodes or bones. This makes treatment very difficult.

What are the symptoms?

Prostate cancer often does not cause any symptoms for many years. When symptoms occur, cancer cells often spread beyond the prostate, which is why regular screening for men aged 40 and over is important and recommended. The symptoms are as follows:

  • Urinary problems:
  • A dull ache in the hip, hip, or upper thigh
  • Inability to urinate
  • Feeling that your bladder does not empty
  • Having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine
  • Difficulty urinating and difficulty urinating
  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Weakness of urine
  • Urinary discharge that starts and stops
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Difficulty having an erection
  • Pain during ejaculation
  • Genital pain
  • Blood in the urine or semen

Note: Other health issues such as urinary tract infection or inflammation; Bladder problems or kidney stones can cause the same symptoms. Therefore, if the symptoms occurred and were accompanied by blood in your urine, painful urination and severe pain in the lower back, hips and legs, severe weight loss – you should see a urologist for a proper diagnosis.

Who is at risk?

Risk factors often associated with prostate cancer include:

  • Age: After the age of 50, the chances of having it are high. More than 80 percent of these occur in men age 65 or older.
  • Competition: African American men have a 60% higher risk than white men, including Hispanic men
  • Ethnicity: It is most common in North America and northwestern Europe and is commonly found in Asia, Africa, Central America and South America.
  • Family history: It seems to have a genetic link. Having a family history of prostate cancer, a father or brother with the disease doubles the father’s risk of developing it. A man whose brother had prostate cancer has 4.5 times the risk and 2.5 times if his father had it.
  • Vasectomy: Men who have had a vasectomy (a procedure that makes them sterile) may have an increased risk.
  • Men with diabetes have a lower risk of developing the disease, although no one knows why.

What to avoid?

Living a healthy lifestyle is the best way to reduce the risk of all types of cancer:

  • Diet: The results of several studies show that a diet high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables has an increased chance of developing prostate cancer.
  • Studies show that eating foods rich in lycopenes (found in high-quality fruits and vegetables), selenium, goji berry, broccoli and turmeric reduces the risk.
  • Exercise: Maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly can reduce the risk.
  • Get plenty of rest- regular sleep is important for your overall health.

How is prostate cancer diagnosed?

There are three common analysis methods:

  • Digital rectal examination (DRE)
    Digital imaging as part of an annual physical exam in men age 50 or older (and in younger men who are at increased risk). During this test, the doctor inserts a fingertip with a lubricant into the colon to feel for a problem. Although a rectal exam can be uncomfortable, it is done quickly.
  • Blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA)
    PSA is a blood test that measures a protein in the cells of the prostate gland. The American Cancer Society recommends that this test be done once a year for men 50 years of age or older, and for younger men who have a high risk of prostate cancer.

A score below 4 is usually considered normal. Scores above 10 are considered high. Values ​​between 4 and 10 are considered the limit. The higher the PSA, the more likely prostate cancer is present.

The test should be further confirmed with a biopsy since the PSA test cannot be used as a foolproof test:

  • Two out of every 3 men with a high PSA do not show cancer cells in a prostate biopsy.
  • 1 in 5 men with prostate cancer will have a positive PSA result.
  • Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
    TRUS will be performed if digital tests or PSAs are negative. A probe is inserted into the rectum and images are taken using sound waves, which create an image of the prostate gland. The test is performed in an outpatient setting and usually takes less than 30 minutes. Based on the results of the test, additional tests may be recommended.

A positive biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. If the biopsy shows cancer, further tests are done to see if it has spread to other organs:

  • Blood test– may be taken to see if the cancer has spread
  • Bone scan– to know if the cancer has spread to the bones
  • CT scan– a series of X-ray images taken of the pelvis or abdomen, which are often used to diagnose symptoms
  • X-ray chest– to find out if the cancer has spread to the lungs
  • MRI– magnetic resonance imaging to detect cancer in the lymph nodes and other internal organs

What is the treatment for prostate cancer?

There are several treatments for prostate cancer: These are surgery, radiotherapy and different types of medicine. Hormonal therapy is widely used. It blocks the action of testosterone, the sex hormone that prostate cancer needs to grow.

Three treatment options are recommended for men with genitalia

prostate:

  • Radical prostatectomy: Surgery to remove the entire prostate gland and nearby tissues. Sometimes the lymph nodes in the pelvic area are also removed. This procedure is performed using nerve-sparing surgery that can prevent the damage to the nerves required for the reconstruction. However, it is not always necessary to have surgery to reduce the nerves.
  • Radiation therapy: Applying energy to the prostate using external beam radiation. Patients at high risk for prostate cancer are those who want to add hormone therapy to standard radiation therapy.
  • Active Monitoring may be the recommended procedure for patients with early prostate cancer, especially those with small tumors with less cancer seen in biopsy.

Are there any problems?

As with all illnesses, treatment can have side effects. The main concerns are infertility, or erectile dysfunction, and incontinence.

Researchers still don’t understand what causes prostate cancer, or how it develops — and they need to improve current treatments.

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