Why Did The Old Man That Studies Stars And Planets Seven Earth-Size Worlds Inhabit The Family Of A Distant Star

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Seven Earth-Size Worlds Inhabit The Family Of A Distant Star

“Wokonda chidwi ndi wokonda chidwi,” adatero Alice pamene ankafufuza zodabwitsa za dziko la Wonderland, ndipo monga iye timafufuza Dziko Lodabwitsa la thambo lowala kwambiri pamwamba pa dziko lathu lapansi pofuna kumvetsetsa kuti ndife ndani pofufuza zomwe siziri tokha. Pofunsa funso lozama ngati tili tokha kapena ayi m’Chilengedwe chachikulu kwambiri – chomwe sitinayambe kufufuza – tikuyesera kumvetsetsa kuti ndife ndani mu dongosolo lachinsinsi la zinthu zakuthambo. Kufuna kupeza moyo kumayiko ena kwakhala nthawi yayitali kukhala Holy Grail ya osaka mapulaneti achidwi, komanso chuma chamtengo wapatali. exoplanets zomwe zapezeka m’badwo wapitawu, zatiseketsa malingaliro athu potiwonetsa dziko lodabwitsa lachilengedwe lodzaza ndi maiko odabwitsa – komanso maiko omwe ali ngati mapulaneti odziwika bwino a Dzuwa lathu, okhala m’banja la Dzuwa lathu lomwe. . Mu February 2017, akatswiri a zakuthambo amagwiritsa ntchito infrared ya NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, adalengeza kuti apeza dongosolo loyamba lodziwika kuzungulira nyenyezi yokhayokha, yomwe imakhala ndi ma exoplanets asanu ndi awiri a Earth. Atatu mwa mapulaneti awa Wonderlands ali mokhazikika pamalo abwino malo okhalamo kuzungulira nyenyezi za makolo awo, kumene madzi amadzimadzi okonda moyo angakhalepo. Moyo monga tikudziwira umadalira kukhalapo kwa madzi amadzimadzi.

Kupeza kodabwitsaku kukupanga mbiri yatsopano ya anthu ambiri malo okhalamo ma exoplanets opezeka m’banja la nyenyezi yokhayokha, yakutali kupitilira Dzuwa lathu. Mapulaneti asanu ndi awiri achilendowa amatha kukhala ndi madzi amadzimadzi pansi pamikhalidwe yoyenera ya mumlengalenga. Komabe, mwayi wa izi ndi wapamwamba kwambiri ndi atatu adziko lapansi malo okhalamo.

“Kupeza kumeneku kungakhale gawo lofunika kwambiri pakupeza malo okhalamo, malo omwe ndi abwino kwa moyo. Kuyankha funso lakuti ‘kodi ndife tokha’ ndilofunika kwambiri pa sayansi ndikupeza mapulaneti ochuluka ngati awa kwa nthawi yoyamba malo okhalamo ndi sitepe yodabwitsa kwambiri yokwaniritsira cholinga chimenecho,” anatero Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen m’nyuzipepala ya February 22, 2017. NASA Press Release. Dr. Zurbuchen ndi wothandizira wa NASA Science Mission Directorate ku Washington.

The Quest

M’mbiri yakale, kufunafuna kupeza mapulaneti akutali, okhala m’mabanja achilendo a nyenyezi kupitirira Dzuwa lathu, kunali kovuta. Kupezeka kwa gulu loyamba la exoplanets m’badwo wakale ukuimira chimodzi mwa zinthu zazikulu kwambiri zomwe anthu achita. Kuzindikira pulaneti lalikulu, monga ngati mpweya wa mpweya wa Solar System, Jupiter, kwayerekezedwa ndi kuona kuwala kodumpha kuchokera ku njenjete yaing’ono yomwe ikuwuluka pafupi ndi nyali yowala ya 1,000-watt ya nyali ya mumsewu yonyezimira—pamene wopenyererayo ali kutali kwambiri.

Njira yoyambirira yomwe akatswiri a zakuthambo adagwiritsa ntchito kale mu 1995 – the Doppler Shift njira–yathandizira kupezedwa kwa mapulaneti akuluakulu omwe amazungulira mozungulira nyenyezi zomwe makolo awo amakhala mozungulira, mozungulira mowotcha. Komabe, m’kupita kwa nthaŵi, luso lazopangapanga linapita patsogolo kwambiri moti linacheperachepera exoplanets zazindikirika. Akatswiri ambiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo amaganiza kuti mapulaneti achilendo amtundu wapadziko lapansi mwina ndi anthu ambiri okhala mdera lathu la Galactic.

Zing’onozing’ono za exoplanet, zimakhala zovuta kuzizindikira. Mwachitsanzo, ngati katswiri wa zakuthambo wachilendo, wotukuka kwambiri pazaumisiri, atapita kukasakasaka maiko ena kumadera akutali a Galaxy yathu ya Milky Way, zingakhale zovuta kuwona pulaneti lathu lakuda, lamiyala, labuluu. Dziko Lathu likanangooneka ngati kadontho kakang’ono kotayikira mumlengalenga. M’malo mwake, dziko lathu lapansi labisika kwambiri kuti lisawone masomphenya achilendo chifukwa kunyezimira kowoneka bwino kwa Nyenyezi yathu yayikulu kwambiri, Dzuwa, kumakulitsa.

Kupeza koyamba kwasayansi kwa exoplanet kunali mu 1988 – koma kuzindikirika koyamba kudabwera mu 1992 ndi kupezedwa kwa maiko ena odabwitsa komanso osasangalatsa omwe amayenda mozungulira mozungulira nyenyezi yowirira yotchedwa pulsar– zotsalira zotsalira za nyenyezi yaikulu yomwe inataya “moyo” wake paziwombankhanga zamoto wa supernova, zomwe zinang’amba nyenyezi yoyambayo kukhala zidutswazidutswa. Akatswiri a sayansi ya zakuthambo adazindikira dziko loyamba lozungulira nyenyezi “yamoyo” ngati Dzuwa lathu, mu 1995. Pofika pa Marichi 1, 2017, ma exoplanet 3,586, okhala m’mapulaneti 2,691, apezeka – komanso mapulaneti 603 angapo apezekanso. zatsimikiziridwa.

Kuyambira 2004, a European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) Telesikopu ya 3.6 mita, yawona bwino pafupifupi maiko 100 akunja, ndipo kuyambira 2009, NASA ya Kepler Space Telescope wapeza zoposa zikwi ziwiri. Kepler wawonanso mapulaneti osankhidwa zikwi zingapo, omwe pafupifupi 11% okha ndi omwe angakhale onama. Akatswiri a zakuthambo osaka mapulaneti amaganiza kuti pafupifupi nyenyezi imodzi mwa 5 yofanana ndi Dzuwa lathu imazunguliridwa ndi pulaneti la “Earth-size” lomwe lili bwino mu malo okhalamo za abambo awo anzeru. Ngati pali nyenyezi 200 biliyoni zomwe zikuvina mozungulira mu Milky Way yathu, zitha kukhala kuti Maplaneti 11 mabiliyoni otha kukhalamo ngati Earth mu Galaxy yathu. Chiwerengero chochititsa chidwi kwambiri chimenechi chikhoza kukwera kwambiri ngati mapulaneti ozungulira ambiri nyenyezi zazing’ono zofiira akuphatikizidwa mu chiwerengero. Nyenyezi zofiira ndi zing’onozing’ono, komanso zochulukirapo, nyenyezi zenizeni zomwe zimakhala mu Galaxy yathu. Red dwarfs ndi ang’ono kwambiri kuposa Dzuwa lathu laling’ono, ndipo akhoza “kukhala” moyo mabiliyoni kwa zaka zambiri pakuwotcha hydrogen tsatanetsatane cha Chithunzi cha Hertzsprung-Russell cha Stellar Evolution.

Dziko lachilendo locheperako lomwe limadziwika ndi Draugr (PSR B1257+12 A kapena PSR B1257+12 B), zomwe ziri zomveka kuthamanga kwa odziwika exoplanet zinyalala, kuwirikiza kawiri kokha kulemera kwa Mwezi wa Dziko Lapansi. Mosiyana kwambiri, pulaneti lalikulu kwambiri lodziwika bwino lomwe lili pa NASA Exoplanet Sungani imatchedwa DENIS-P J082303.11-491201 b, ndipo ndi pafupifupi kuŵirikiza ka 29 kulemera kwa Jupiter. Komabe, molingana ndi matanthauzo ena a dzikodziko lakutali ili ndi lalikulu kwambiri kuti lisakhale pulaneti ndipo lingakhaledi mtundu wa kulephera kwa nyenyezi kotchedwa mtundu wa brown. Mitundu ya Brown ndi zinthu zomwe mwina zimabadwa mofanana ndi m’bale wawo weniweni wa nyenyezi – kuyambira kugwa kwa blob wandiweyani mkati mwa chimphona chachikulu, chozizira, chamdima. mtambo wa molekyulu–koma sanathe kufikira misa yofunika kuyatsa awo nyukiliya-kusakaniza ng’anjo.

Pali exoplanets omwe amakumbatira nyenyezi ya makolo awo munjira zothina, zowotcha kotero kuti amatenga maola ochepa kuti azizungulira – ndipo pali ena omwe ali kutali kwambiri ndi kholo lawo la nyenyezi lomwe amawatenga. zikwi kwa zaka kupanga kanjira kamodzi. Inde, ena exoplanets zili kutali kwambiri ndi nyenyezi zimene zimawachitikira moti n’kovuta kwa akatswiri a zakuthambo kudziwa ngati zilidi ndi mphamvu yokoka. Pafupifupi maiko onse akutali, omwe ndi a mabanja a nyenyezi kupitilira Dzuwa lathu, ndi omwe amakhala a Milky Way yathu – koma pakhalanso zozindikirika zingapo zochititsa chidwi zomwe zingachitike. exoplanets. Wapafupi kwambiri exoplanet ku Earth ndi Proxima Centauri byomwe ili “wamba” kwa zaka 4.2 kuwala kuchokera ku dziko lathu lapansi, ndipo ili mozungulira kuzungulira Proxima Centaurinyenyezi yoyandikana kwambiri ndi Dzuwa lathu.

Zoonadi, kupezedwa kwa chuma chochuluka choterocho kunali kutali exoplanets zadzetsa chidwi chachikulu cha asayansi pakusaka zamoyo kupitilira dziko lathu lapansi – ndikuyika chidwi kwambiri pa mapulaneti omwe amazungulira nyenyezi yawo mkati mwake. malo okhalamo. Komabe, kufunafuna zamoyo kupitirira Dziko Lapansi kuyeneranso kuganiziranso zina zambiri pozindikira kuyenera kwa dziko lapansi kukhala ndi zamoyo monga tikudziwira.

Komanso, palinso otchedwa mapulaneti owopsa, zomwe sizimazungulira nyenyezi iliyonse, koma zimayendayenda zotayika komanso zokha kupyolera mumlengalenga popanda banja la nyenyezi kuti likhale lawo. Akatswiri a zakuthambo amakonda kuganizira za maiko okhawo padera, makamaka ngati ndi mapulaneti akuluakulu a mpweya monga Jupiter ndi Saturn ya Solar System yathu, pomwe nthawi zambiri amatchulidwa ngati mapulaneti. sub-brown dwarfs. The mapulaneti owopsa zomwe zimayendayenda mu Galaxy yathu mwina zikupitilira mabiliyoni – kapena kupitilira apo!

Maiko Asanu Ndi Awiri Aakulu Padziko Lapansi Amakhala M’banja La Nyenyezi Yakutali

Pafupifupi zaka 40 zowala (235 trilioni miles) kuchokera ku dziko lathu lapansi, maiko asanu ndi awiri omwe angopezedwa kumene amatengedwa kukhala pang’ono oyandikana nawo pafupi ndi Dzuwa lathu.

Izi wolemera-wopatsidwa exoplanet dongosolo ndi dzina TRAPPIST-1,kwa The Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST) ku Chile. Mu May 2016, akatswiri a zakuthambo akugwiritsa ntchito TRAPPIST adalengeza za kupeza kwawo kwa mapulaneti atatu mu dongosolo. Mothandizidwa ndi ma telescope angapo oyambira pansi, kuphatikiza Telescope ya ESO Yaikulu Kwambiri (VLT), Spitzer adatsimikizira kukhalapo kwa awiri mwa atatuwa, komanso adapezanso mapulaneti ena asanu. Izi zinawonjezera chiwerengero cha mapulaneti odziwika m’dongosolo lino kufika asanu ndi awiri.

Kugwiritsa ntchito deta yatsopano yochokera ku Spitzer, gulu la akatswiri a zakuthambo linapima ndendende kukula kwa zisanu ndi ziŵirizo exoplanets, ndipo anapitiriza kukulitsa kuyerekezera koyamba kwa unyinji wa asanu ndi mmodziwo. Izi zidapangitsa kuti timuyi iwunikire kuchuluka kwawo.

Kutengera ndi kachulukidwe awo, onse TRAPPIST-1 maiko achilendo amaonedwa kuti ndi miyala – monga Dziko lathu lapansi. Zowonjezera zidzathandiza akatswiri a zakuthambo kudziwa ngati ali olemera m’madzi – komanso kuwonetsanso ngati palimodzi mwa iwo akhoza kukhala ndi madzi amadzimadzi amadzimadzi. Unyinji wachisanu ndi chiwiri ndi wakutali kwambiri exoplanet sichinawerengedwebe. Komabe, akatswiri a zakuthambo akuganiza kuti dziko likhoza kukhala lachisanu, “longa mpira wa chipale chofewa” – koma kuwunika kwina ndikofunikira.

Dr. Michael Gillon adanena mu February 22, 2017 NASA Press Release kuti “Zodabwitsa zisanu ndi ziwiri za TRAPPIST-1 ndi mapulaneti oyamba kukula kwa dziko lapansi omwe apezeka akuzungulira nyenyezi yamtunduwu. Ndilonso chandamale chapamwamba kwambiri chophunzirira zakuthambo zomwe zingathe kukhalamo, zapadziko lapansi zazikuluzikulu zapadziko lapansi.” Dr. Gillon ndi mlembi wamkulu wa pepalali, pofotokoza za kupezedwa kwatsopano, lofalitsidwa m’magazini ya February 22, 2017. Chilengedwe. Dr. Gillon ndiyenso wofufuza wamkulu wa Kafukufuku wa TRAPPIST Exoplanet ku yunivesite ya Liege, ku Belgium.

Mu Marichi 2017, akatswiri a zakuthambo amagwiritsa ntchito kusaka mapulaneti a NASA Kepler Space Telescope, adanenanso kuti akhala akuwonera TRAPPIST-1 system kuyambira Disembala 2016.

Munthawi ya Disembala 15, 2016 mpaka Marichi 4, 2017, ochita bwino kwambiri. Kepler spacecraft, panopa ikugwira ntchito ngati ntchito K2adasonkhanitsa zosintha zazing’ono za ultracool dwarf star pakuwala chifukwa cha kuyenda mapulaneti. Kupita zochitika zimachitika pamene pulaneti limayandama kutsogolo kwa nkhope yonyezimira ya kholo lake-nyenyezi, motero kuchititsa kuviika pang’ono mu kuwala kwake kowonekera.

Kupenda kowonjezereka kumeneku akuyembekezeredwa kuthandiza akatswiri a zakuthambo kuwongolera miyeso yoyambirira ya mapulaneti asanu ndi limodzi, kudziŵa bwino lomwe nyengo ya orbital ndi kulemera kwa gawo lachisanu ndi chiwiri losawoneka bwino, ndi kuphunzira zambiri za ntchito ya maginito ya nyenyezi yaing’ono, yozizira ya kholo.

Nthawi yowonera, yotchedwa K2 Kampeni 12imapereka masiku 74 owunikira TRAPPIST-1 dongosolo. Iyi ndi nthawi yayitali kwambiri, pafupifupi mosalekeza ya zochitika za dongosolo lino, ndipo imapatsa akatswiri a zakuthambo mwayi wowonanso kuvina kokoka kwa maiko asanu ndi awiri a Wonderland – komanso kusaka kwakutali. exoplanets zomwe mwina zidakhalabe zosadziŵika m’dongosolo lachonde limeneli.

Dr. Michael Haas adanena mu March 8, 2017 NASA Press Release kuti “Tinali ndi mwayi kuti ntchito K2 adatha kuwona TRAPPIST-1. Munda wowonera Kampeni 12 inakhazikitsidwa pamene kutulukira kwa mapulaneti oyambirira ozungulira TRAPPIST-1 zinalengezedwa, ndipo gulu la sayansi linali litapereka kale malingaliro a zolinga zachidwi pa ntchitoyi. Mwayi wosayembekezereka wopitilira kuphunzira TRAPPIST-1 dongosolo mwamsanga anazindikira ndi agility wa K2 gulu ndi gulu la sayansi zidapambananso.” Dr. Haas ndi director of science office Kepler ndi K2 ntchito za NASA Ames Research Center ku California.

Kuwongolera kowonjezera pamiyezo yakale ya mapulaneti odziwika, ndi mapulaneti ena owonjezera omwe angawonekere K2 deta, idzathandiza akatswiri a zakuthambo kukonzekera maphunziro otsatila a TRAPPIST-1 Dziko la Wonderland pogwiritsa ntchito zomwe zikubwera za NASA James Webb Space Telescope.

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