Summary Of The Book The Old Man And The Medal Is the Shroud of Turin Medieval? History Tells a Different Story

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Is the Shroud of Turin Medieval? History Tells a Different Story

Mu 1988 Nsalu ya ku Turin inaloŵa m’nyengo ya mdima ndi yomvetsa chisoni ngati chimphepo chamkuntho. Uwu ukhoza kukhala mkuntho wa atolankhani oyipa komanso malingaliro olakwika. Shroud inali yabodza monga momwe ma lab atatu ochezera a carbon. Phwando linatha. Zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri m’mbuyomo, mu 1981, chiyembekezo chinali chachikulu pamene Shroud of Turin Research Project inalengeza zotsatira zawo patatha masiku asanu ndi nsalu ndi zaka zitatu kusanthula deta. Zotsatira zake zidapangitsa dziko lapansi kukhala ndi mwayi. The Shroud sanali ntchito ya wojambula ndipo magazi anali enieni. Kodi Shroud ingakhale yowona? Kodi n’zotheka?

Osati molingana ndi ma labu ochezera a carbon. Sayansi idalankhula ndipo sayansi siinali yolakwika. Ndikupereka nkhaniyi kukumbukira malemu Paul Harvey, wofalitsa nkhani wamkulu wawailesi yemwe adadziwika ndi mawu ake, “Tsopano mukudziwa nkhani yonse.”

Mu 1985, asayansi makumi awiri ndi awiri adasonkhana pamodzi ku hotelo ku Norway kuti akambirane za momwe kukwera kwa carbon kwa Shroud kudzachitikira. Mwinanso kufunitsitsa pang’ono, koma zidagwirizana kuti ma lab asanu ndi awiri osiyanasiyana adzaphatikizidwe, anayi adzagwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wakale wa proportional counter ndipo atatu adzagwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo waposachedwa wa nyukiliya. Mayeserowo angakhale akhungu pomwe ma lab omwe akukhudzidwa sangadziwe kuti ndi chitsanzo chiti chomwe chinali chowongolera kapena kuchokera ku Shroud. Pomaliza, komanso chofunikira kwambiri, amadula malo osachepera atatu pa Shroud kuti athetsere skew iliyonse kuchokera pakuipitsidwa. Izi ndi zomwe zimayenera kuchitika.

Tsopano kwa nkhani yonse. Luigi Gonella anali mlangizi wa sayansi wosankhidwa ndi Tchalitchi cha Katolika kuti aziyang’anira nkhani yonse. Linali lingaliro lake kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha ma lab kukhala atatu kuchokera pa asanu ndi awiri oyambirira. Izi zokha sizinali zowononga dziko, zisanu ndi ziwiri mwina zinali zochulukira. Koma kulakwitsa kwenikweni kunali kochuluka kuposa kulakwitsa wamba; chinali cholakwika chachikulu ndipo chikanangosiya Nsaluyo itawonongeka mosakayika. Pamene atsogoleri a ma lab atatu oimira Oxford, Zurich ndi Tucson anasonkhana mozungulira nsalu yolemekezeka kuti adziwe komwe angadulire zitsanzo zawo za chibwenzi, chipewa cha sayansi ya Luigi chinagwa pansi ndikuwulula chipewa china chodzaza ndi kupembedza kwa Katolika. M’malo modula malo atatu osiyana pansaluyo, Luigi anasankha malo amodzi okha, omwe anali pafupi ndi malo odulidwa mu 1973 kuti afufuze nsalu ndi Gilbert Raes. Chifukwa chiyani? Zingawoneke zokongola. Chochitika chofunika kwambiri cha carbon cha m’zaka za zana la makumi awiri chinatsimikiziridwa ndi aesthetics m’malo mwa njira zomveka.

Poteteza Luigi, pali zizindikiro zosonyeza kuti adakakamizika kunyalanyaza chitsanzo cha Pontifical Academy of Sciences ku Rome ndi Centro Internazionale di Sindonologia ku Turin. Izi zikhoza kukhala choncho, koma nthawi zonse adzakhala ndi mlandu wa zolakwika izi.

Chinachitika ndi chiyani? M’malo mwa zitsanzo zitatu, imodzi yokha ndiyo inadulidwa. Ndipo anadulidwa kuti? Kuchokera pa mbali yogwiridwa kwambiri ya nsaluyo, ngodya yomwe inagwidwa ndi kugwiridwa kambirimbiri m’zaka mazana ambiri pamene Nsaluyo inatulutsidwa ndi kugwiridwa mopingasa ndi akuluakulu a Tchalitchi kuti zikwi zambiri ziwone. Idatulutsidwanso kangapo kuti idalitse maukwati achifumu chifukwa inali ya banja lachifumu la Savoy kwa zaka zopitilira 400.

Kotero sikuti kuyesa kwa carbon kunali kokha kwa chitsanzo chimodzi chokha, komanso kunatengedwa kuchokera kumalo omwe akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale aliyense akanapewa monga chimfine cha nkhumba. Kodi pali vuto ndi chitsanzo? X-ray radiography ya dera lachitsanzo imasonyeza kuchulukana kwa ulusi pazifukwa zina. Chidziwitso china chinabwera kuchokera kwa katswiri wamankhwala Dr. Alan Adler mu 1996. Iye adawona kuti deta ya spectrographic kuchokera pakona imeneyo sinafanane ndi nsalu yonse yosonyeza kuti pali mankhwala osiyana. Mu 2003 katswiri wamankhwala Ray Rogers adapeza zitsanzo za ulusi kuchokera pakona yomweyo yodulira bwenzi la kaboni ndikuziyerekeza ndi ulusi wotengedwa kumutu waukulu wa nsalu. Rogers adatsimikizira kudzera mu chemistry kukayikira komwe kunayambika ndi mayeso ena. Ntchito yake inasindikizidwa m’magazini ya sayansi yomwe inakambidwa ndi anzawo mu 2005. Ngodya sinali yofanana. Zinali zosiyana; kwenikweni zinali zosiyana kwambiri.

Kukhalapo kwa wowuma, thonje ndi utoto wamizu ya madder zonse zikuwonetsa kukonzanso. Chani? Ngodya idakonzedwa? Liti? Bwanji? Sizikupanga nzeru. Kodi Luigi ndi anthu ena sakanazindikira kusiyanako? Osati ngati izo zinachitidwa ndi amisiri aluso a ku France oluka nsalu omwe anali apadera mu “kukonza kosaoneka.” Chakumapeto kwa zaka zapakati, oluka nsalu ku France adapanga bungwe la amisiri ndipo adadziwika kuti adabwezeretsanso zomangira, makatani ndi zovala zabwino zomwe zidali kale. Kodi analembedwa ntchito yokonza Nsaluyo? Palibe nkhani yolembedwa yolembera izi koma mfuti yosuta ikuwonekera momveka bwino. Thonje idagwiritsidwa ntchito kukonzanso ngodya yophwanyika chifukwa imatenga utoto mosavuta. Utoto unkagwiritsidwa ntchito kusakaniza ulusi watsopano wa thonje ndi ulusi wachikasu kwambiri wa Shroud, ndipo pomalizira pake wowuma ankagwiritsidwa ntchito kuumitsa ulusi wa thonje pamene ankalukidwa mosamala kwambiri pakona. Ndi chiyani chinanso chomwe chingapangitse kuti zinthu zodabwitsazi zipezeke pakona ndendendeyo?

Zolakwa zazikulu za Luigi sizikutithandiza. Ndi kuvomerezeka kwa chitsanzo cha chibwenzi cha carbon chomwe chikufunsidwa momveka bwino, chiyenera kuchotsedwa ngati chosakwanira. Ngati Nsaluyo inali chinthu china chilichonse chosalongosoka chochokera kumalo osadziwika bwino ofukula zinthu zakale, zikanangolembedwanso. Osati choncho ndi Shroud, zaka makumi awiri ndi chimodzi zadutsa kuchokera ku mayesero oyambirira a chibwenzi cha carbon ndipo komabe palibe kukambirana za kubwereza mayesero.
Zikuwoneka kuti olemba mbiri akuyenera kutengapo gawo kuti ayankhe limodzi mwamafunso apakati ozungulira Shroud. Kodi ndi Middle Ages? Ngati sichoncho, ndi zaka zingati?

Nkhaniyi siyitha kuthana ndi mbiri yonse ya Shroud. Komabe, zingakhale zophunzitsa kuona ngati mbiri ya nsaluyo isanakhale masiku omwe amati carbon date range of 1260 mpaka 1390. Ma lab adatsimikiza ndi “95% chidaliro” kuti tsiku lakale kwambiri lidzakhala 1260 ndi wamng’ono kwambiri ku 1390. Osachepera tikudziwa kuti sinali ntchito ya Leonardo da Vinci yemwe anabadwa mochedwa-1452-pokhapokha ngati adayambitsa ulendo wa nthawi.

Chimodzi mwa zovuta zakale zakhala kutseka mipata yonse ndi zolemba zomveka bwino. Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amadandaula chifukwa cha kusowa kwakukulu kwa zikalata zokhudzana ndi pafupifupi munthu kapena chochitika chilichonse chomwe chinakhalapo zaka zoposa mazana angapo zapitazo. Mipata imadzazidwa ndi malingaliro ndi nkhani. Ndi Shroud, kusiyana kotereku kulipo pakati pa 1204 ndi 1356. Tili ndi mbiri yodziwika bwino kuyambira pamene inafika ku Lirey, France pamene idawonetsedwa koyamba mpaka lero.

Kodi chinachitika ndi chiyani mu 1204? Chaka chino ndi malo otsika kwambiri m’mbiri ya Chikristu pamene asilikali amtanda ochokera ku Venice ndi France anaukira Constantinople, likulu la Chikristu Chakum’maŵa. Mzindawu unkaonedwa kuti ndi mzinda wolemera kwambiri padziko lonse ndipo unkanyadira zinthu zimene unasonkhanitsa pamodzi ndi korona waminga ndi “wopatulika woposa onse, nsalu yotchinga imene Ambuye wathu Yesu Khristu anakulungamo. Umu ndi momwe zinaimiridwa mu kalata yolembera Papa Innocent III mu 1205 yotsutsa kuwukirako. Tikudziwa kuchokera ku maumboni ena kuti bafutayu anali ndi chithunzi-mofanana ndi Nsalu. Mzindawu unafunkhidwa ndi kuwotchedwa. Pafupifupi chotsalira chilichonse chomwe tchalitchi china cha ku France, Spain kapena ku Italy chimanena kuti chimachokera ku Constantinople. Kodi Nsaluyo inapita kuti? Chikalata china chimasonyeza kuti anatengedwa kupita ku Athens ndipo anaonekera kumeneko mu 1207. Zolemba zinayi tsopano zikutsimikizira zimenezi. Ndani anali nalo? Ilo linakhala la msilikali wodziwika bwino, Othon de la Roche wa ku Burgundy. Iye anali munthu wachuma ndi udindo ndipo anathandiza kwambiri kulandidwa bwino kwa Constantinople. Chifukwa cha utumiki wake, anapatsidwa mphoto ya Athens monga wolamulira ndipo anakhala Mtsogoleri wa Athens ndipo anapatsidwa zinthu zingapo monga malipiro kuphatikizapo Shroud. Komabe ulamuliro wake wa ndale unali waufupi chifukwa chothamangitsana ndi Papa ndipo mu 1230 anabwerera ku nyumba yake yachifumu ku Ray-sur-Saône ku Burgundy. Zosungidwa mu imodzi mwa nsanja mpaka lero ndi zinthu zomwe zatengedwa kuchokera ku Constantinople. Chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri ndi bokosi lamatabwa lolembedwa kuti, “bokosi la 13th lomwe linasungidwa ku Ray Castle Nsalu ya Khristu yobweretsedwa ndi Othon de Ray kuchokera ku Constantinople-1206.” Pali chisokonezo ngati zolembazo zikunena za Othon kapena mwana wake yemwe amadziwika kuti Othon de Ray. Zilibe kanthu. Mfundo ndi yakuti tikudziwa kumene Nsaluyo ili mu 1230; kunali ku Burgundy, France.

Tsopano tiyenera kupita patsogolo zaka 120 mpaka 1350. Apa ndi pamene Jean de Vergy, mdzukulu wamkulu wa Othon de la Roche anayenera kukwatiwa ndi katswiri wotchuka wa ku France, Geoffrey de Charney. Jean ankakhala ku Besancon, France, pafupifupi makilomita 100 kuchokera ku Burgundy. Amalembedwa kuti ali ndi Shroud ndipo amasungidwa ku Besancon Castle kunja kwa mzindawu. Zolemba zikuwonetsa kuti idawonetsedwa nthawi zina ku Saint Stevens Cathedral pa Isitala. Chaka chomwecho chimene ukwati wawo unachitikira, tchalitchicho chinapsa. Mu 1353, Jean de Vergy ndi Geoffrey de Charney anasamukira ku Lirey kumene Geoffrey amamanga tchalitchi koma anamwalira mu 1356. Chaka chomwecho, Jean de Vergy akupanga chionetsero choyamba cha anthu onse cha Shroud polemekeza Geoffrey. Mendulo ya oyendayenda imaponyedwa kusonyeza chithunzi chapadera cha Shroud chokhala ndi magulu a mabanja onse omwe akuimiridwa. Akatswili a mbiri yakale aphatikizana potengera malingaliro ndi nkhani kuti Jean de Vergy anali mwiniwake wa Shroud monga mbadwa yachindunji ya Othon de la Roche ndipo adapereka chotsaliracho ngati gawo lachiwongola dzanja chake kwa Geoffrey atakwatirana.

Zaka zapakati pa 1230 pamene tikudziwa kuti zinali ku Burgundy ndi 1350 pamene Jean de Vergy amadziwika kuti ali nazo, ndi pamene zikhoza kuchitidwa ndi Knights Templar kuti zikhale zotetezeka. Chikalata chaposachedwapa chofukulidwa m’malo osungiramo zinthu zakale a ku Vatican ndi wolemba mbiri Barbara Frale chikuvumbula umboni wa mu 1287 wa mnyamata woloŵa usilikali ku dongosolo limene anabweretsedwa m’malo opatulika achinsinsi kumene amasonyezedwa nsalu yaitali ya bafuta yokhala ndi chifaniziro cha ndevu za munthu ndipo akuyenera kutero. kupsompsona mapazi katatu. Ndizoposa chidwi kuti Geoffrey de Charney wina anawotchedwa pamtengo mu 1314 pamodzi ndi Jacque de Molay. Iwo anali atsogoleri awiri a Knights Templar omwe anaimbidwa mlandu wampatuko, kuti amapembedza fano lachinsinsi. Kodi zinangochitika mwangozi kuti Geoffrey de Charney wina, mbadwa yachindunji ya Templar yemwe adaphedwayo akwatira wolowa m’malo mwa Shroud, Jean de Vergy zaka makumi atatu ndi zisanu ndi chimodzi pambuyo pake? Zopatsa chidwi! Olemba amatchera khutu. Mukuyang’ana nkhani yodzadza ndi chiwembu, zinsinsi, zamanyazi komanso kusakhulupirika? Mwangopeza kumene.

Kodi zonsezi zikutanthauza chiyani? Yang’anani pa madeti … 1205, 1207, 1230 onse momveka bwino asanakhale tsiku loyambirira la carbon la 1260. Tili ndi zomveka bwino za nsalu za Othon ndi mbadwa zake. Chinthu chofunika kwambiri pa mbiriyi ndi ichi-ngati tingathe kugwirizanitsa Nsalu ya Turin ku zomwe zinasowa pa Nkhondo Yachinayi; mwadzidzidzi tili ndi njira yolembedwa kuyambira zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chimodzi! Mbiri ya nsalu yomwe imatchedwa “yopatulika kwambiri” inayamba mu 525 ndipo inasowa mu 1204.

Kodi pali njira ina iliyonse yolumikizira kusiyana pakati pa 1204 ndi 1356? Lilipo—ndipo ndilo lofunika kwambiri pa zonse. Pafupifupi zaka makumi atatu zapitazo chithunzi chofunikira chinapezeka m’masamba a Pemphero la Chihangare. Ili linali buku loyamba kulembedwa ndi kumangidwa m’chinenero cha ku Hungary. Mkati mwake muli chithunzi chosonyeza zinthu ziwiri zosiyana. Chochitika choyamba chikusonyeza Yesu ataikidwa pansalu yake yoikidwa m’manda akusonyeza zala zinayi zokha ndipo palibe zala zazikulu zazikulu—zofanana ndi Nsaluyo. Chithunzi chachiwiri chikuwonetsa nsalu yophimbidwa ndi Yesu yokhala ndi chithunzi cha nkhope chosonyeza kuti nsaluyo ili ndi chithunzi. Apa pali chotsitsa; chithunzi chikuwonetsanso “L” mawonekedwe owoneka ngati mabowo oyaka ndendende momwe timawaonera pa Nsalu. Pomaliza, chithunzichi chikuwonetseratu mtundu wa herringbone woluka wa Shroud. Sizikanakhoza kumveka bwino. Chithunzichi cha 1192 chikuwonetsa Shroud yomwe idasungidwa ku Constantinople ndipo ndi nsalu yomweyo yomwe imakhala ku Turin lero. Sipangakhale kulakwitsa tsopano pazomwe zidasowa mu 1204 ndipo pambuyo pake zidaperekedwa kwa Othon de la Roche.

Kodi Shroud Medieval? Osati mwayi. Malingana ngati tikhala tikunamizira kuti tsiku la carbon ndilolondola mwanjira ina ngakhale chitsanzo choyipa, tipitiriza kuyang’ana wojambula yemwe adazipanga. Ngati mukuyang’ana wojambulayo, yambani kuyang’ana m’zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chimodzi. Komabe, musayang’ane movutikira chifukwa pali umboni womwe umatengeranso zaka za zana lachitatu. Kodi zimachokera m’zaka za zana loyamba? Pokhapokha ngati mumakhulupirira nthano – koma nthano iliyonse ili ndi nkhokwe ya chowonadi. Tsopano mukudziwa nkhani yonse. Ndikuganiza kuti Paul Harvey akumwetulira.

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