B.F Skinner Instructional Strategies Birth To 4 Years Old The Role of Psychology in Business Coaching

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The Role of Psychology in Business Coaching

Kev cob qhia tam sim no yog ib qho ntawm ‘cov’ lo lus. Nws txawm muaj nyob hauv TV nrov uas ib zaug cov kws pab tswv yim thiab cov kws kho mob puas siab puas ntsws yog lub pob tw ntawm kev lom zem. Txhua tus uas yog leej twg tam sim no muaj tus kws qhia. Txhua tus uas xav hloov txoj haujlwm xav txog kev ua tus kws qhia. Vim li cas ho tsis? Nws yog ib qho zoo kawg nkaus txaus siab thiab muaj peev xwm ua haujlwm tau zoo los koom nrog. Kev cob qhia, zoo li ntau yam zoo, tuaj yeem yog txheej txheem yooj yim thiab ua tau zoo heev. Nws tuaj yeem muaj kev xyiv fab los saib thaum cov txiaj ntsig zoo kawg nkaus.

Kev lig kev cai, kev cob qhia tau siv rau hauv cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev lag luam raws li cov txheej txheem kho – tam sim no feem ntau hu ua Kev Qhia Ua Haujlwm. Txawm li cas los xij, raws li cov tuam txhab lag luam tau paub txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm kev siv tag nrho thiab tsim nws ‘peb peev peev txheej’, cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev txhim kho kev ua haujlwm tsis tu ncua los ntawm kev cob qhia tau pom meej dua thiab xav tau. Hom kev cob qhia no tuaj yeem raug hu ua kev cob qhia rau kev ua tau zoo vim nws xav tias tus neeg ntawd twb ua haujlwm tiav thiab ua tiav hauv qhov nws ua. Nyob rau hauv ib puag ncig kev hloov pauv sai sai “lub hnub qub” cov neeg ua yeeb yam tau txais txiaj ntsig los ntawm lub sijhawm los xav txog qhov ua haujlwm zoo rau lawv, yuav ua li cas txhawb nqa kev ua tau zoo thiab yuav ua li cas thiaj li muaj tswv yim thiab txais kev hloov pauv hauv qhov zoo thiab tshiab.

Raws li qhov kev thov rau kev cob qhia tau nce mus, yog li muaj ntau yam kev qhia thiab cov qauv muaj. Muaj qhov txuas ntxiv los ntawm lub ntsiab lus zoo, tsis muaj teeb meem thiab tsis muaj txiaj ntsig los ntawm qhov txaus ntshai, nrog qee qhov kev qhia ua tau zoo nyob nruab nrab. Raws li kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev hais plaub nce, muaj kev maj nrawm los tsim cov txheej txheem lees paub rau kev lees paub ua ntej txoj haujlwm raug hu ua kev tsis lees paub.

Cov kws qhia ntawv los ntawm ntau yam keeb kwm sib txawv, nrog rau kev sib txawv ntawm kev txhawb nqa thiab kev sib txawv ntawm kev xav tau zoo rau cov txheej txheem thiab cov ntsiab lus ntawm lawv cov kev qhia. Nws yuav yog kev txawj ntse snobbery los qhia tias txhua tus kws qhia yuav tsum muaj kev paub txog kev puas siab puas ntsws tab sis nws yeej tuaj yeem pab tau. Kev cob qhia yog txheej txheem puas siab ntsws. Nws ua haujlwm zoo dua yog tias koj muaj kev nkag siab zoo txog qhov ua rau tib neeg zuam. Xyoo ntawm txoj kev tshawb fawb zoo li kev tshawb fawb tau muab cov kws kho kev puas siab puas ntsws kom zoo dua ntawm no – lossis yuav tsum muaj. Qee tus kws qhia kis las feem ntau zoo li tau txais kev hwm ntau dua rau lawv txoj kev koom tes rau thaj chaw no ntau dua li kaum xyoo ntawm cov kws kho mob ua haujlwm nyuaj.

Raws li tus kws kho mob hlwb ntawm kev paub txog kev coj cwj pwm ntau yam, kuv tau khawb kuv qhov av tawm ntawm NHS thaum ntxov xyoo 1980s vim kuv qhov kev txaus siab nyob rau hauv kev tiv thaiv cov teeb meem ntau dua li tos cov neeg poob ntawm lawv cov perches kom kuv thiaj li siv tau kuv cov kev txawj ntse rau lawv. Ua haujlwm nrog cov tib neeg thiab cov pab pawg hauv lub ntiaj teb kev lag luam kom ua tiav qhov zoo tshaj plaws, Kuv tsis tuaj yeem taug qab lub sijhawm uas kuv tau ua pib raug xa mus rau kev cob qhia. Kuv tau siv txhua txoj kev puas siab puas ntsws ntawm kuv qhov kev pov tseg yam tsis tau hais txog ‘kev kho’ lo lus tab sis kuv tau ua ntau zaus yuav tsum tau zais cov kws kho mob hlwb – feem ntau yog vim muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm kev puas siab puas ntsws nrog kev qaug zog thiab teeb meem. Txawm li cas los xij, kuv xav zoo siab tshaj tawm kuv tus kheej los ua tus kws kho mob hlwb dua li muab kuv tus kheej tso rau hauv lub hnab sib xyaw ntawm ‘coaches’.

Kev puas siab puas ntsws txoj haujlwm feem ntau tau dhau los ua neeg nyiam tshaj tawm tshaj li 20 xyoo dhau los. Cov ntawv ceeb toom tuaj kub tawm xov xwm los ntawm BPS lub rooj sib tham. Ntawm qhov kawg ntawm qhov spectrum, muaj ib tus kws kho mob hlwb ntawm yuav luag txhua qhov kev muaj tiag hauv TV. Txawm li cas los xij, cov duab nrov tseem yog feem ntau yog ib qho yuam kev ntawm kev tawm tsam qhov tsaus ntuj thiab cov teeb meem hauv qab es tsis ua kev zoo siab rau peb lub peev xwm kom muaj kev cuam tshuam zoo rau ntawm no thiab tam sim no kev xav, kev coj cwj pwm, kev noj qab haus huv thiab kev vam meej.

Hauv kev cob qhia ntau lub hauv paus ntawm kev puas siab puas ntsws yog qhov tseem ceeb. Psychologists coj cov no rau kev tso cai. Cov kws qhia kuj tseem tuaj yeem coj lawv mus rau qhov tsis lees paub qhov muaj zog ntau npaum li cas lawv qhov kev cuam tshuam tuaj yeem yog yog tias lawv tau siv ntau qhov kev xav hauv qab cov ntsiab lus.

Txoj kev cob qhia muaj feem

  • kev txhim kho kev sib raug zoo, kev sib raug zoo
  • sau cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm kev ntsuam xyuas, kev soj ntsuam thiab kev xam phaj
  • kev sib tham txog cov hom phiaj ua tib zoo
  • kev siv cov txheej txheem daws teeb meem, kev txhim kho txuj ci

Lub hom phiaj ntawm kev cob qhia yuav yog

  • Hloov ntawm ib lub luag haujlwm lossis lub xeev mus rau lwm qhov
  • Kev hloov pauv
  • Kev daws teeb meem
  • Kev txawj ntse

Txhua qhov kev qhuab qhia puas siab puas ntsws muaj qee yam los pab txhawb rau cov txheej txheem no. Ntawm no yog ib qho kev xaiv ntawm tus kheej ntawm cov tswv yim muaj txiaj ntsig ntau dua.

Raws li kuv tau kawm nyob rau hauv cov kab kev coj cwj pwm nyuaj, tej zaum qhov ntawd yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws los pib. Pavlov thiab nws tus dev tau dhau mus rau cov kab lis kev cai nrov thaum Watson, Skinner thiab Bandura yuav tsawg dua cov npe tsev neeg. Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog qhov tseeb tias kev coj tus cwj pwm yog ib txwm sim. Kev soj ntsuam thiab kev ntsuas kab hauv paus yog ua. Cov hom phiaj raug tsim. Cov txheej txheem yog siv los hloov cov txiaj ntsig. Cov txiaj ntsig tau raug ntsuas thiab hloov kho kom kwv yees ze rau qhov ua tiav ntawm cov hom phiaj. Kev cob qhia ua haujlwm zoo tshaj plaws thaum nws ua raws li cov txheej txheem no. Kev ntsuas nruj ntawm qhov xwm txheej thiab kev txhawb nqa yog qhov tseem ceeb heev hauv kev ntsuas kev ua haujlwm hauv cov koom haum niaj hnub no. Yog tsis muaj kev saib xyuas rau cov no, kev hloov pauv yuav lwj sai sai thiab tib neeg thiab kab lis kev cai rov qab mus rau hom. Qhov khoom plig feem ntau lees paub tias muaj qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev ua tiav thiab tswj hwm kev hloov pauv ntawm tus cwj pwm. Txawm li cas los xij, tsis muaj kev nkag siab txog qhov nyuaj ntawm kev txhawb nqa feem ntau tiv thaiv nws txoj kev siv tau zoo tshaj plaws.

Cov lus teb rau qhov kev txhawb nqa zoo tuaj yeem yooj yim rau peb hais tab sis yog phau ntawv kaw rau ntau tus thawj coj thiab tej zaum qee tus kws qhia. Kev cob qhia tus neeg siv khoom kom paub txog thiab siv ntau hom thiab cov qauv ntawm kev txhawb nqa ua rau lawv muaj txiaj ntsig zoo hauv lawv lub luag haujlwm. Cov tswv yim no feem ntau pheej yig thiab ua tau zoo dua li cov khoom plig nyuaj uas tau teeb tsa hauv cov koom haum. Txawm tias lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm kev lees paub los ntawm kev txais tos thiab ‘ua tsaug’ yog qhov xav tsis thoob, tab sis feem ntau yuav yog thawj qhov kev thuam tau khaws rau hauv kab lis kev cai tshawb xyuas. Kev kwv yees me ntsis mus rau cov hom phiaj xav tau los ntawm kev rhuav tshem cov haujlwm ua me me, ua tiav thiab tau txais txiaj ntsig cov kauj ruam yog qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev cob qhia kev sib raug zoo raws li nws tau kho. Kev xyaum coj cwj pwm thiab kev ua qauv tuaj yeem siv tau zoo hauv kev cob qhia. Kev coj tus cwj pwm ntawm cov hom phiaj thiab cov txiaj ntsig ntsuas tau zoo sib xws rau kev cob qhia kev sib raug zoo thiab lub koom haum.

Kuv tus kheej zoo siab hauv kuv txoj haujlwm tau txhim kho thaum qhov kev coj cwj pwm nruj tau lees paub qee qhov kev nplua nuj ntawm kev txawj ntse. Kev tshawb fawb ntawm Albert Ellis thiab Aaron Beck muaj ntau yam rau tus kws qhia siv los txhim kho kev ntseeg siab, kev xav thiab kev ua tau zoo ntawm lawv cov neeg siv khoom. Cov kws qhia tuaj yeem pab cov neeg siv khoom paub txog lawv cov txheej txheem kev xav (dab tsi dhau los ntawm koj lub siab nyob ntawd?) ua kom pom tseeb txog kev xav yuam kev lossis kev paub tsis meej thiab ua rau pom qhov cuam tshuam rau qhov kev cia siab tsis zoo no rau kev xav thiab tus cwj pwm. Tom qab ntawd lawv tuaj yeem cob qhia cov neeg siv khoom los tawm tsam cov pov thawj rau thiab tawm tsam, lees paub qhov kev xav tau los ntawm kev xav thiab ntsuas qhov tseeb thiab qhov xav tau ntawm tus cwj pwm tshwm sim. Kev cob qhia tuaj yeem pab cov neeg siv khoom txuas ntxiv txhim kho cov txheej txheem zoo thiab ua rau muaj kev noj qab haus huv thiab kev puas siab puas ntsws. Kev lees paub tshwj xeeb, rov tshwm sim ntawm cov ntsiab lus yuam kev ntawm kev ntseeg hauv qab. Los ntawm kev hais txog thiab ntsuas cov no, cov kws qhia feem ntau yuav ua rau cov neeg siv khoom tso tawm ntau lub zog hauv txoj hauv kev zoo thiab lub hom phiaj los ntawm kev ntseeg tshiab, zoo dua.

Kev ua haujlwm los ntawm Martin Seligman ntawm kev kawm kev cia siab thiab kev tiv thaiv kev tsis zoo yog qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev qhia. Los ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas seb qhov kev xav puas yog Ib txwm, Pervasive thiab Tus Kheej rau kev ua tiav thiab tsis ua haujlwm thiab tshuaj xyuas cov pov thawj tshawb fawb txog kev ua tiav thiab kev noj qab haus huv hauv cov neeg xav tau zoo, tus kws qhia muaj lub hauv paus zoo los pab cov neeg siv hloov lawv txoj kev xav kom ua tiav kev tsim kho ntau dua.

Kev puas siab puas ntsws zoo, hmuv coj los ntawm Seligman, muaj sijhawm los ntsuas thiab txhim kho kev zoo siab thiab kev noj qab haus huv hauv koj tus kheej thiab kev ua haujlwm hauv lub neej. Seligman hais txog qhov tseeb tias cov kws kho kev puas siab puas ntsws muaj lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv lub ntiaj teb ntawm qhov kev iab liam ib txwm muaj. Nws sib cav hais tias kev puas siab puas ntsws, ib feem, poob nws txoj hauv kev tom qab Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb Zaum 2 thaum, ntxias los ntawm nyiaj txiag, ntau thiab ntau tus kws kho mob puas siab puas ntsws ua rau lawv txoj hauv kev tsis zoo rau kev puas siab puas ntsws es tsis yog kev txhawb nqa thiab tsim kev zoo. Nws lub hom phiaj yog nthuav dav daim ntawv thov kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev cia siab thiab kev zoo siab rau cov pej xeem. Muaj ntau txoj hauv kev tuaj yeem nkag mus rau cov neeg tsis muaj kev puas siab puas ntsws. Tshwj xeeb tshaj yog muaj txiaj ntsig rau tus kws qhia yog kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev kos npe muaj zog thiab peb txoj hauv kev rau kev zoo siab. Los ntawm kev tsim thiab siv tus cwj pwm muaj zog ntau dua hauv kev ua haujlwm, lub neej thiab kev sib raug zoo muaj peev xwm ua tau ntau dua thiab ua tiav lub neej. Los ntawm kev tsom mus rau kev txhawb nqa kev nkag siab zoo ntawm yav dhau los, txhim kho kev txaus siab ntawm tam sim no thiab kev cia siab rau yav tom ntej ntsuas kev hloov pauv hauv kev zoo siab tuaj yeem pom.

Txoj kev xav psychodynamic yuav tsum tsis txhob raug saib xyuas – txawm tias los ntawm dyed nyob rau hauv wool kev txawj ntse behaviourists uas clamor rau methodologically suab, kev tshawb fawb raws li pov thawj. Cov tswv yim xws li kev tiv thaiv mechanisms yog qhov tseem ceeb thaum saib seb cov neeg siv kev xav li cas – thaum lawv mus rau kev lom zem, sublimation lossis kev tsim txom. Cov kev xav ntawm kev hloov pauv thiab kev hloov pauv hloov pauv yog qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev saib xyuas qhov xwm txheej ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm tus kws qhia thiab cov neeg siv khoom. Yog tias tsis muaj kev nkag siab txog cov ntsiab lus no, cov kws qhia tuaj yeem raug coj los ntawm lawv tus kheej txoj kev xav lossis cov neeg siv khoom thiab tsis tuaj yeem siv qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm cov sijhawm no thaum lawv tshwm sim.

Cov txuj ci xws li cov no yuav txhim kho qhov kev ua yeeb yam ntawm tus kws qhia tab sis yuav muaj txiaj ntsig me ntsis yog tias tsis muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm tus kws qhia thiab cov neeg siv khoom. Txoj Kev Person-Centred thiab kev ua haujlwm ntawm Carl Rogers muaj cov lus qhia tseem ceeb rau kev qhia. Cov kws qhia, zoo li cov kws kho mob, muaj txiaj ntsig zoo dua thaum lawv qhia txog kev paub txog kev sib raug zoo ntawm kev ncaj ncees, kev xav zoo thiab kev xav. Rau ntau tus kws qhia cov neeg siv khoom hauv kev lag luam yuav muaj qee qhov kev sib raug zoo uas cov xwm txheej no tshwm sim. Faades thiab kev ua si nom tswv yuav txhawb nqa lub luag haujlwm – kev ua si, kev sib raug zoo thiab qee qhov kev dag ntxias. Tus kws qhia kev hwm yuav yog tib tus neeg uas tuaj yeem tuav daim iav rau cov neeg siv khoom nrog kev ncaj ncees. Qhov no tsuas yog siv tau thaum ua ke nrog kev saib xyuas zoo thiab kev lees paub. Empathy tso cai rau kev nkag siab txog lawv qhov kev muaj tiag – xav rov qab paub txog qee qhov kev xav thiab kev xav uas tsis hais nyob qhov twg. Cov kev txawj ntawm kev rov hais dua, kev hais lus, kev xav, kev xaus lus thiab kev tawm tswv yim yog txhua yam kev qhia qhia yooj yim. Lawv yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev tsim kev ntseeg siab thiab kev sib raug zoo raws li cov neeg siv khoom feem ntau, txawm tias lawv yog cov neeg ua haujlwm ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav kev cob qhia, yuav muaj qee qhov tsis txaus ntseeg txog cov txheej txheem kev cob qhia thaum ntxov. Los ntawm kev ua kom pom cov yam ntxwv ntawm kev sib raug zoo, cov kws qhia tseem ua qauv rau lawv cov neeg siv khoom kom ua tau zoo dua qub thaum ua haujlwm nrog lawv cov neeg ua haujlwm.

Qhov kev tshuaj xyuas no tsuas yog piav qhia txog tus kheej qhov kev xav thiab ntau cov ntsiab lus tau ua yuav zoo li pom tseeb. Cov no tsuas yog qee cov tswv yim uas tau ua haujlwm zoo rau kuv thiab tau muab kev txaus siab thiab ua rau lub ntiaj teb kev cob qhia kev lag luam. Muaj xws li kev nplua nuj ntawm kev paub thiab kev txawj ntse hauv kev puas siab puas ntsws los muab lub ntiaj teb kev cob qhia. Tej zaum raws li kws kho hlwb peb yuav tsum xyuas kom meej tias peb txuas ntxiv ua qhov no nkag mus tau yooj yim dua.

Cov ntaub ntawv

Bandura, A. (1977) Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Beck, AT, Rush, AJ, Shaw, BF thiab Emery, G. (1980) Kev paub txog kev kho kev nyuaj siab. Sussex, Tebchaws Askiv: John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Ellis, A. & Grieger, R. (1977) Phau ntawv qhia txog kev xav txog kev xav. New York: Springer

Neenan, M. and Dryden.W. (2002) Life Coaching: A Cognitive Behavior mus kom ze. London: Brunner-Routledge

Rogers, C. (1961) Los ua ib tug neeg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Seligman, M. (2003) Kev zoo siab tiag tiag. London Nicholas Brealey Publishing

Seligman, M.(1991) Kawm Optimism. New York: Alfred Knopf

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