Average Weight For A 4 Year Old Boy In Kgs Impact Of Nutrition On Nations Produtivity And Healthy Growth

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Impact Of Nutrition On Nations Produtivity And Healthy Growth

Nigeria tau txhim kho kev lag luam kev lag luam zoo li nws lub xyoo dhau los. Qhov teeb meem ntawm kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus tseem cuam tshuam rau qee tus ntawm nws cov pej xeem. Nws tau ntev hobbled los ntawm kev tsis sib haum xeeb ntawm kev nom kev tswv, kev noj nyiaj txiag, kev tsim kho tsis zoo thiab kev tswj hwm macro-economic tsis zoo. Qhov no tau coj nws mus dhau kev vam khom rau cov peev txheej roj siv nyiaj ntau, uas muab 20% ntawm GDP, 95% ntawm cov nyiaj tau los txawv teb chaws, thiab kwv yees li 65% ntawm cov nyiaj tau los. Tab sis qee qhov kev hloov pauv ntawm tsoomfwv thiab nyiaj txiag tau ua rau muaj kev txhim kho ntau yam xws li kev kwv yees nce hauv nws GDP los ntawm $ 430 ib tus neeg hauv xyoo 2003 txog $ 1,000 hauv 2005. Txo cov nyiaj poob haujlwm los ntawm 3.2% hauv 1997 txog 2.9% hauv 2005. micro-finance banking, thiab bank liquidation thiab consolidation los ntawm CBN, ua rau kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm Nigerian cov tsev txhab nyiaj raws li ib tug ntawm qhov zoo tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv teb chaws Africa. Lub ncov ntawm tag nrho yog qhov keeb kwm nuj nqis ntawm $ 30 billion tus nqi los ntawm $ 37 billion tus kheej los ntawm Nigeria mus rau Paris Club hauv lub Peb Hlis 2006.Txawm hais tias tag nrho cov kev txhim kho tsis ntev los no, 70% ntawm Nigerians tseem nyob rau hauv lub alienating tes ntawm malnutrition thiab 60% hauv 2000 hauv qab kab kev txom nyem. Kuv tau categorized qhov teeb meem kev noj haus hauv Nigerian rau lub hom phiaj ntawm kev qhia meej rau hauv kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo, noj zaub mov ntau dhau thiab micronutrition. Lub hom phiaj ntawm tsab xov xwm no yog los tshuaj xyuas tsoomfwv cov kev siv zog thiab tseem qhia txog txoj hauv kev ntawm emanating lub teb chaws los ntawm kev tsis sib haum xeeb ntawm kev txom nyem uas hem lub teb chaws lub neej yav tom ntej.

NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS.

Txawm hais tias peb qhov teeb meem kev noj haus ua rau cov ntsiab lus ntawm lub teb chaws qhov teeb meem ntawm kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo, nws yuav zoo los tshuaj xyuas tag nrho cov teeb meem ib zaug. Kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo yog qhov teeb meem kev noj haus loj tshaj plaws uas ua rau cov neeg feem coob nyob hauv cov cheeb tsam nyob deb nroog thiab qee cov neeg uas tau mus rau hauv nroog nrhiav zaub ntsuab. Kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo yog tus cwj pwm los ntawm kev noj tsis txaus ntawm macro-nutrients (xws li: calories thiab protein). Raws li tus thawj tswj hwm Obasanjo, “yuav luag ib nrab ntawm cov menyuam yaus hnub nyoog 7+-13 hauv Nigeria tsis hnyav”. Ntau tus menyuam yaus thiab cov neeg laus mus pw tshaib plab, qee leej noj ib pluag mov ib hnub thiab feem ntau ntawm cov zaub mov no yog carbohydrates. Qhov no ua rau muaj kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus thiab tsis muaj protein ntau. Nws yog lub ntsiab ua rau kwashiorkor uas yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov neeg nyob rau hauv lub teb chaws sov African cheeb tsam. Rau cov neeg laus, Qhov Pom Zoo Pom Zoo Pub Noj (RDA) rau cov protein yog 0.79g ib Kg (0.36g ib 1b) ntawm lub cev hnyav txhua hnub. Rau cov menyuam yaus thiab cov menyuam mos, qhov RDA no yog ob npaug thiab tripled, feem, vim lawv txoj kev loj hlob sai. Qhov no yog lub hauv paus ua rau stunted loj hlob thiab deformation nyob rau hauv cov me nyuam loj hlob. Ib feem tsib ntawm cov menyuam yaus Nigerian tuag ua ntej hnub nyoog tsib xyoos, feem ntau los ntawm ntau lab tus neeg Nigerians tseem nyob qis dua ib hnub, lwm tus nyob los ntawm kev thov zaub mov ntawm txoj kev.

Kev noj zaub mov ntau dhau yog qhov teeb meem ntawm cov neeg laus thiab ob peb cov tub ntxhais hluas tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov neeg nyob hauv nroog. Nws yog ib qho teeb meem loj zuj zus rau pej xeem noj zaub mov, feem ntau xav txog kev hloov pauv hauv cov qauv kev noj haus thiab ntau txoj kev ua neej nyob. Qhov xwm txheej hauv Nigeria qhov twg kev lag luam nyiam ib pab pawg tshaj li lwm tus, cov neeg pluag tau txais kev txom nyem thaum cov neeg nplua nuj tau nplua nuj tau ua rau muaj feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov khoom noj khoom haus ntau dua – Nigerian tus txiv neej loj kab mob. Qhov teeb meem kev noj haus no tam sim no nyob rau hauv qhov txaus ntshai ntawm kev noj haus cov kab mob ntev xws li mob ntshav qab zib hom II, ntshav siab, kab mob plawv thiab ntau yam mob qog noj ntshav. Cov kab mob ntev no suav nrog tib neeg kev txom nyem, kev ntxhov siab hauv zej zog, kev poob ntawm cov khoom lag luam, thiab kev lag luam nyiaj txiag rau kev noj qab haus huv thiab lwm yam kev lag luam. Kev nce ntawm cov pej xeem xav nyob hauv lub tebchaws cuam tshuam rau lub teb chaws lub zog ua haujlwm thiab kev tsim khoom ntawm lub teb chaws ob qho tib si tam sim no thiab yav tom ntej.

Qhov kawg tab sis tsis yog daim ntawv teev npe yog micronutrient deficiencies. Nws yog qhov tsis txaus ntawm cov vitamins thiab minerals tseem ceeb. Nws yog ob qho tib si kev paub los ntawm cov neeg pluag thiab cov nplua nuj, cov neeg nyob deb nroog thiab nroog. Nws yog kev tshaib kev nqhis zais nyob rau hauv lub guise ntawm txaus nyob rau hauv Nigerian haiv neeg. Tsis muaj cov vitamins thiab minerals ua rau kev puas tsuaj rau menyuam yaus thiab kev loj hlob ntawm lub hlwb. Tias yog vim li cas hom kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo no yog tsom rau cov poj niam cev xeeb tub thiab menyuam yaus. Raws li qee qhov kev txiav txim siab, nws tau pom tias txawm tias qhov tsis txaus iodine thaum lub sij hawm cev xeeb tub thiab cov me nyuam mos tau pom tias muaj kev nyuaj siab txog kev txawj ntse los ntawm 10-15 cov ntsiab lus. Folic acid deficiency yog txuam nrog kev yug menyuam loj. Cov hlau tsis txaus cuam tshuam rau menyuam txoj kev loj hlob thiab kev muaj peev xwm kawm, thiab txo lawv lub peev xwm kom mloog zoo, koom nrog hauv tsev kawm ntawv thiab zej zog sib cuam tshuam thiab txhim kho; nws tseem ua rau cov khoom siv tuag thiab txo cov neeg ua haujlwm tsim khoom. Nws tau sau tseg tias 40% ntawm cov menyuam yaus hnub nyoog qis dua 5 xyoos raug kev txom nyem vitamin A tsis txaus.

Peb qhov teeb meem tseem ceeb ntawm kev noj haus hauv Nigeria ua rau muaj kev sib tw loj rau lub teb chaws txoj kev lag luam poob qis tau ua rau poob qis ntawm cov khoom noj muaj protein ntau, roj thiab tsiaj noj. Ntau tus niam txiv tam sim no tso tseg txoj haujlwm pub niam mis thiab tag nrho cov no thiab ntau lwm tus ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo hauv Nigeria thiab ntau dua yog li tam sim no nws tab tom muaj kev hloov pauv sai sai.

TSEV KAWM NTAWV UA NTEJ UA HAUJ LWM

Nigeria kev lag luam tau tswj hwm los ntawm Kev Ua Liaj Ua Teb thiab kev lag luam, uas tau muaj kev vam meej thaum lub sij hawm tswj kav hauv xyoo pua 19th. Nyob rau hauv 1960s thiab 1970s cov roj av kev lag luam tau tsim thiab prompted zoo heev export cov nyiaj tau los thiab tso cai rau loj kev nqis peev nyob rau hauv kev lag luam, kev ua liaj ua teb, infrastructure thiab social sciences.

Qhov poob qis ntawm cov nqi roj, kev tswj tsis tau nyiaj txiag, thiab kev tswj tub rog txuas ntxiv ua rau Nigeria nyob rau xyoo 1980s. Xyoo 1983, Lub Chaw Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Loj Hlob Hauv Tebchaws Meskas (USAID) tau pib muab kev pabcuam rau Nigerian Tsoom Fwv Tebchaws thiab Lub Xeev Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv los tsim thiab siv cov kev pabcuam hauv kev npaj tsev neeg thiab kev muaj sia nyob ntawm menyuam yaus. Xyoo 1992, ib qho kev tiv thaiv kab mob HIV / AIDS tau ntxiv rau cov haujlwm kev noj qab haus huv uas twb muaj lawm USAID tau cog lus $ 135 lab rau ob tog kev pab cuam rau lub sijhawm xyoo 1986 txog 1996 raws li Nigeria tau pib ua tiav qhov kev hloov kho cov qauv, tab sis tom qab ntawd tso tseg. Cov phiaj xwm cog lus cog lus $ 150 lab hauv kev pab txij li xyoo 1993 txog 2003 tau cuam tshuam los ntawm kev cuam tshuam los ntawm kev sib raug zoo hauv Asmeskas-Nigeria txog kev tsim txom tib neeg, kev hloov pauv mus rau kev ywj pheej, thiab tsis muaj kev koom tes los ntawm Tsoom Fwv Nigerian ntawm kev tawm tsam kev lag luam teeb meem. Los ntawm nruab nrab-1990s, cov teeb meem no tau ua rau kev txo qis ntawm USAID cov haujlwm uas yuav pab tau rau tsoomfwv cov tub rog. Cov kev pabcuam kev noj qab haus huv uas twb muaj lawm tau raug kho dua tshiab los tsom mus rau kev ua haujlwm los ntawm cov hauv paus hauv tebchaws Nigerian cov koomhaum tsis yog tsoomfwv thiab cov pab pawg hauv zej zog.

Xyoo 1987, Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Ua Liaj Ua Teb Thoob Ntiaj Teb ntawm Tropical Agriculture (IITA), nyob rau hauv tus thawj xibfwb kws tshawb fawb Dr Kenton Dashiell, tau pib ua haujlwm tsis meej pem hauv tebchaws Nigeria los tawm tsam kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo. Lawv txhawb kom siv cov as-ham, cov taum pauv nyiaj txiag hauv cov khoom noj txhua hnub. Lawv tau hais ntxiv tias cov taum pauv muaj li ntawm 40% muaj protein ntau dua li ib qho ntawm cov zaub thiab tsiaj cov zaub mov uas muaj nyob hauv Africa. Nrog rau kev sib ntxiv ntawm pob kws, nplej thiab lwm yam cereals rau cov taum pauv, cov protein ua tau raws li tus qauv ntawm United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Soybeans kuj muaj li ntawm 20% roj, uas yog 85% unsaturated thiab tsis muaj roj cholesterol. Txawm hais tias muaj ntau cov kev pabcuam zoo rau kev txo qis kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo pib rau lub sijhawm no, muaj ntau lwm cov kev lag luam kev noj qab haus huv uas cuam tshuam qhov muaj koob npe thiab kev ua haujlwm zoo ntawm cov kev pabcuam no mus txog rau lub sijhawm kev ywj pheej. Kev lag luam tsis ruaj tsis khov nyob rau lub sijhawm no tau pom zoo rau kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus rau ntau yam vim yog tsoomfwv autocratic. Muaj me me lossis tsis muaj kev sib zog sib zog los tawm tsam kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus. Lub sij hawm tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas tau tias yog lub sijhawm egoistic- thaum tsoomfwv cov paj laum ntiag tug tau tswj hwm ntawm kev siv nyiaj ntawm cov neeg txom nyem.

THAUM INTERVENTION

Qhov nthuav tshaj plaws ntawm lub sijhawm no yog tias nws yog tus cwj pwm los ntawm kev cog lus thiab kev cia siab. Kev cog lus uas yog lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm lub sijhawm no thiab kev cia siab ib txwm muaj los txhawb nqa cov lus cog tseg. Thawj Tswj Hwm Obasanjo hauv 2002 ntsib nrog tus thawj tswj hwm International Union of Nutritional Sciences tau cog lus tias yuav txhawb kev sib koom tes zoo dua ntawm cov khoom noj khoom haus thiab cov kev pab cuam hauv Nigeria, nws hais ntxiv tias, “qhov muaj ntau ntawm kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo yog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg rau tsoomfwv no thiab nws tau lees paub rau IUNS tus thawj tswj hwm. hais tias nws yuav ua txhua yam ua tau los xyuas kom meej tias muaj kev pab cuam los txhim kho cov khoom noj hauv tsev kom ruaj ntseg, nkag mus rau cov kev pab kho mob ntau dua thiab muaj peev xwm saib xyuas zoo dua los ntawm cov niam nrog rau kev txhawb nqa kev txhawb nqa kev pub niam mis.

Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 27, 2005, Nigerian tus thawj tswj hwm Olusegun Obasanjo tau noj su rau Nasarawa lub xeev lub tsev kawm ntawv pub zaub mov ntawm Laminga lub tsev kawm ntawv theem pib. Txoj haujlwm tau txais nyiaj txiag tag nrho thiab tswj hwm los ntawm lub xeev Nasarawa, uas ua rau nws ua tus qauv tshwj xeeb hauv Africa niaj hnub no. Lub sijhawm ua kev tshwm sim yog ua tiav ntawm ib qho ntawm cov lus cog tseg ntawm kev tawm tsam kev noj zaub mov tsis txaus tshwj xeeb ntawm cov menyuam yaus uas nws tau pom tias ntau tus neeg muaj hnub nyoog 7-13 xyoos yog qhov hnyav. Nws tau cog lus ntxiv tias yuav ncav cuag li 27 lab tus menyuam yaus hauv 10 xyoo tom ntej.

Lwm lub koom haum thoob ntiaj teb xws li World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) uas tau pib xyoo 1992 tab sis tau siv ntau lub hauv paus hauv kev tswj hwm kev ywj pheej. Tag nrho lawv thiab ntau ntxiv yog sib ntaus sib tua kom tshem tawm kev txom nyem thiab kev tsis txaus noj haus.

Muaj ntau qhov kev sib tw uas muaj nyob rau hauv qee qhov kev txhim kho khoom noj khoom haus. Yuav tsum muaj tsoomfwv tso qee qhov kev tshawb fawb txog kev noj haus rau hauv lub tebchaws txoj cai. Lawv yuav tsum muaj peev xwm ncav cuag lub nook thiab cranny ntawm lub teb chaws. Lawv yuav tsum muaj peev xwm sib koom tes txhua qhov haujlwm ntawm cov koom haum tiv thaiv kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo. Kev cuam tshuam zoo dua yog xav tau ntau heev.

Khoom noj khoom haus tam sim no yog ib qho teeb meem cuam tshuam rau ceg txheem ntseeg thiab zoo li lub luag haujlwm uas tsis tuaj yeem zam ntawm txhua lub tebchaws. Txawm hais tias nws nyuaj rau kev daws teeb meem rau txhua tus txiv neej lub qhov rooj tab sis tsoomfwv yuav tsum sim ntau li ntau tau kom ncav cuag tib neeg los ntawm, cov koom haum mobile, thiab xov xwm loj. Yuav tsum muaj ntau qhov kev tshawb fawb tau zoo hauv lub tebchaws kom hloov kho nrog cov ntaub ntawv xws li; nruab nrab tsoom fwv peev hauv kev noj haus ib lub peev, tam sim no cov pej thuam ntawm cov khoom noj tsis txaus, thiab cov ntaub ntawv ntawm kev noj zaub mov zoo, nrog rau lub teb chaws txoj cai tswjfwm thiab kev sib koom ua haujlwm sib koom ua ke. Yuav tsum tau txhawb cov koom haum noj zaub mov tshwj xeeb, cov koom haum tsis yog tsoomfwv. Tsoom fwv yuav tsum sim txhim kho lub neej kev noj qab haus huv ntawm tib neeg. Kev ua liaj ua teb yuav tsum tau txhawb nqa thiab txhim kho hauv lub tebchaws. Yuav tsum muaj kev txheeb xyuas cov khoom noj muaj txiaj ntsig ntawm txhua yam khoom lag luam ob qho tib si tuaj txawv teb chaws thiab tsis yog khoom lag luam. Tsoom fwv yuav tsum txhawb nqa cov txheej txheem khoom noj khoom haus thoob ntiaj teb, uas yuav ua rau muaj kev noj qab haus huv ntau dua ntawm cov teb chaws thiab dhau mus.

Yog tias cov lus qhia saum toj no tau hais daws yuav raug coj mus rau hauv tus account, Nigeria yuav txhim kho mus rau qhov hnyav raws li lub tebchaws loj ntawm Africa thiab yav tom ntej loj ntawm kev lag luam hauv ntiaj teb, yog li tshem tawm cov cua daj cua dub yav tom ntej ntawm kev lag luam ntsib Nigeria vim tias qee tus ntawm nws cov pej xeem muaj teeb meem kev noj haus. .

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