Average Weight For A 14 Year Old Female 5 4 Maternal Health in India

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Maternal Health in India

‘Vajtswv tsis tuaj yeem nyob txhua qhov chaw thiab yog li ntawd nws tsim niam’ – Ib zaj lus piv txwv ntawm cov neeg Yudais hais txog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm leej niam. Qhov ntawd yuav tsum tso cov niam rau hauv txoj haujlwm muaj cai heev. Tab sis qhov irony yog tias txhua feeb ib tug poj niam tuag thaum yug me nyuam. 536,000 tus poj niam txuas ntxiv tuag yam tsis xav tau txhua xyoo ntawm lub sijhawm uas yuav tsum muaj kev xyiv fab – tsuas yog thaum lawv coj txoj sia los rau hauv ntiaj teb. Ib qho ntxiv 300 lab raug kev txom nyem los ntawm kev kis mob thiab kev tsis taus.

Kwv yees li 14 xyoo tau dhau los txij li Lub Rooj Sib Tham Thoob Ntiaj Teb ntawm Cov Pej Xeem thiab Kev Txhim Kho (ICPD) tau tsim cov txheej txheem kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov menyuam yaus rau lub ntiaj teb, thiab txog li xya xyoo tseem nyob rau Lub Hom Phiaj Xyoo Tshiab (MDG) kom ua tiav.

Lub Hom Phiaj thib tsib Lub Hom Phiaj Xyoo txhiab xyoo (MDG) (Table 1) uas lub hom phiaj los ‘kev txhim kho niam txiv txoj kev noj qab haus huv’ – yog qhov ua tsis tau zoo.

Table 1 MDG 5- Txhim kho niam txiv kev noj qab haus huv

TSEEM CEEB

Lub Hom Phiaj 5A: txo los ntawm ob feem peb, nruab nrab ntawm 1990 thiab 2015, tus poj niam tuag piv

1. Maternal mortality ratio

2. Qhov kev yug me nyuam tuaj koom los ntawm cov kws kho mob txawj ntse

Lub Hom Phiaj 5B: Ua tiav, los ntawm 2015, kev nkag mus rau thoob ntiaj teb kev noj qab haus huv

1. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ntau dua

2. Tus me nyuam yug me nyuam

3. Kev them nyiaj yug menyuam

4. Tsis xav tau kev npaj tsev neeg

Kev tuag ntawm niam txiv yog ib qho tseem ceeb qhia txog cov xwm txheej ntawm cov poj niam hauv zej zog – kev tuag ntawm niam txiv feem ntau sawv cev rau qhov kawg ntawm lub neej ntawm kev ntxub ntxaug poj niam txiv neej thiab kev tsis txaus siab ‘sab hauv’ tsev neeg, thiab tsis ua tiav ntawm ‘sab nraum’ (xws li, kev noj qab haus huv) rau muab kev saib xyuas raws sij hawm thiab muaj txiaj ntsig. Cov kab mob ntev xws li kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo, ntshav qab zib, ntshav qab zib thiab ntshav siab ua rau cov poj niam muaj kev phom sij rau leej niam tuag, tab sis txawm tias cov poj niam noj qab haus huv tuaj yeem ua rau muaj teeb meem tsis txaus ntseeg thaum cev xeeb tub lossis yug menyuam.

Tsuas yog siv kev saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv zoo tuaj yeem ua rau leej niam tuag tsis tshua muaj, raws li nws muaj nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb tsim. Tseeb tiag, qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev noj qab haus huv ntawm niam txiv hauv ntiaj teb niaj hnub no yog qhov sib txawv loj ntawm kev tuag ntawm niam txiv hauv cov teb chaws tsim thiab tsim, tom kawg tseem ceeb heev. Xyoo 2000, 13 lub tebchaws tsim kho suav nrog 70 feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov niam txiv tuag thoob ntiaj teb thiab South Asia rau ib feem peb. Lub teb chaws uas muaj cov neeg tuag coob tshaj plaws yog Is Nrias teb, qhov twg kwv yees li 136,000 tus poj niam tuag.

Ntau yam ntawm tus kheej thiab hauv tsev neeg ua rau cov poj niam muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev tuag thaum cev xeeb tub thiab yug menyuam. Cov no suav nrog cov hnub nyoog (hnub nyoog dhau los lossis laus dhau), kev sib luag siab, kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo, kev nkag mus rau kev pabcuam kev noj qab haus huv tsis zoo, tsis muaj kev sib raug zoo, kev tsis nyeem ntawv thiab kev txom nyem. Raws li nrog rau lwm cov cim qhia txog kev noj qab haus huv ntawm kev yug me nyuam, kev tuag ntawm leej niam yog siab dua nyob rau hauv cov cheeb tsam nyob deb nroog, ntawm kev lag luam tsis zoo, thiab cov uas tsis muaj kev kawm tsawg. Cov poj niam uas tsis tau txais kev saib xyuas thaum cev xeeb tub zoo li muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev tuag ntau dua (ua rau lossis cuam tshuam), thiab cov uas tsis xav tau kev tiv thaiv kab mob yog qhov muaj kev pheej hmoo siab dua yog tias lawv tuaj yeem zam kev xeeb tub.

Kev tuag ntawm niam txiv yog kev tuag tsis zoo li lwm tus. Qhov cuam tshuam ntawm leej niam tuag rau cov tsev neeg thiab cov zej zog yog kev puas tsuaj – tab sis tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov me nyuam muaj sia nyob. Tus menyuam mos liab yog peb mus rau kaum npaug ntau dua yuav tuag hauv thawj ob xyoos yam tsis muaj nws niam. Kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov poj niam yog qhov tseem ceeb rau lub teb chaws txoj kev sib raug zoo, kev lag luam thiab kev lag luam. Kev ciaj sia ntawm cov poj niam hauv kev yug me nyuam qhia txog kev txhim kho tag nrho ntawm lub teb chaws thiab seb cov kev pabcuam kev noj qab haus huv puas ua haujlwm. Hauv kev muaj tiag, kev ciaj sia ntawm cov poj niam qhia txog seb poj niam puas tseem ceeb.

Raws li NFHS-3 thiab SRS 2001-2003, ntau yam ntsuas kev noj qab haus huv qhia txog qhov xwm txheej tam sim no ntawm Poj Niam Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv hauv Is Nrias teb yog

o Cov poj niam hauv pawg hnub nyoog yug me nyuam muaj ze li ntawm 19% ntawm tag nrho cov pej xeem nrog 16% ntawm cov poj niam hauv pawg hnub nyoog 15-19 xyoo. twb yog menyuam bearing.Lub hnub nyoog nruab nrab ntawm cov menyuam kabmob hauv Is Nrias teb yog 19.8 xyoo. (Lub nroog cheeb tsam -20.9 xyoo., nyob deb nroog – 19.3 xyoo).

o 77% ntawm tag nrho cov niam cev xeeb tub tau txais ib daim ntawv ntawm Antenatal Care.( cheeb tsam nroog 91%, nyob deb nroog 72%)

o Ntawm cov poj niam uas tau txais ANC, tsawg dua ob feem peb muaj qhov hnyav, ntshav, lossis tso zis lossis ntsuas ntshav, Peb feem plaub tau kuaj xyuas lawv lub plab thiab 36% tau qhia txog kev xeeb tub. 56% ntawm cov txij nkawm thiab 59% ntawm cov poj niam cev xeeb tub yog anemic. 65% ntawm cov niam cev xeeb tub tau txais lossis yuav cov Hlau thiab folic Acid tab sis tsuas yog 23% tau noj IFA rau 90 hnub. Hauv cheeb tsam nroog, 76% cov poj niam cev xeeb tub tau txais lossis yuav IFA thiab tsuas yog 35% tau noj IFA rau 90 hnub thiab nyob rau hauv cheeb tsam nyob deb nroog 61% tau txais lossis yuav IFA thiab 19% noj tib yam rau 90 hnub.

o 49% ntawm tag nrho cov khoom xa tuaj yog lub koom haum .Tsuas yog kwv yees li ntawm 1 ntawm 7 cov khoom xa tuaj hauv tsev tau txais kev pab los ntawm tus kws kho mob tshwj xeeb.(hauv nroog-68%, nyob deb nroog-29%)

o 13% ntawm cov poj niam indexed qis tshaj xa hauv ib lub tsev kawm ntawv sib piv rau 84% ntawm cov poj niam nyob rau hauv siab tshaj plaws indexed pab pawg.33% ntawm cev xeeb tub uas SC caste xa nyob rau hauv lub tsev kawm ntawv tawm tsam 18% ntawm cov pab pawg neeg Scheduled.

o Tsuas yog 42% ntawm cov niam tom qab yug me nyuam tau txais txhua hom kev saib xyuas tom qab yug menyuam. Maternal Mortality Rate tau maj mam txhim kho los ntawm 437 hauv 1992-1993 txog 301/100000 yug nyob .Maternal Mortality hauv Is Nrias teb tsis zoo ib yam. Kev tuag ntawm leej niam siab yog pawg ntawm EAG xeev ntawm Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, UP, Uttaranchal, Assam & Orissa.

Tag nrho qhov nruab nrab ntawm MMR poob rau lub sijhawm 1997-2003 tau, ntawm 16 cov ntsiab lus hauv ib xyoos. Ntawm qhov kev poob qis no, MDG ntawm 109 los ntawm 2015 tej zaum yuav nyuaj rau kev ua tiav Raws li cov xwm txheej tam sim no, MMR yuav nyob ib puag ncig 231 los ntawm 2012.

Lawv muab peb lub tswv yim hais tias txawm peb tab tom mus rau qhov yog, qhov kev vam meej yog qeeb thiab tiv thaiv cov niam los ntawm kev tuag thiab nyob nrog cov teeb meem ntsig txog kev yug me nyuam, ntau yam tseem yuav tsum tau ua thiab nrawm dua.

Qhov laj thawj tseem ceeb ntawm kev tuag ntawm leej niam yog los ntshav ntau dhau thaum yug me nyuam (feem ntau ntawm cov khoom xa tuaj hauv tsev), (38%) cuam tshuam thiab ua haujlwm ntev, (5%) kab mob / sepsis (11%), rho menyuam tsis zoo, (8%) cov kab mob cuam tshuam txog siab. ntshav siab(5%) thiab lwm yam mob xws li anemia.(34%).Puas kaum xya feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov niam txiv tuag nyob rau hauv cov neeg nyob deb nroog Isdias Asmesliskas yog vim los ntshav ntau dhau thiab ntshav ntshav los ntawm kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo. Cov laj thawj nruab nrab, uas yog thawj thiab thib ob qeeb hauv kev nrhiav kev saib xyuas, suav nrog cov poj niam hauv zej zog qis, tsis muaj kev paub thiab kev paub hauv tsev neeg, kev pab tsis txaus los nrhiav kev saib xyuas, thiab kev tsis zoo rau kev saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv. Qhov ua rau ncua sij hawm thib peb yog kev kuaj mob tsis raws sijhawm thiab kev kho mob, kev txawj tsis zoo thiab kev cob qhia cov kws kho mob, thiab lub sijhawm tos ntev ntawm lub tsev kho mob vim tsis muaj cov neeg ua haujlwm cob qhia, cov khoom siv thiab cov ntshav. Muaj cov chaw tsis txaus rau kev saib xyuas menyuam yaus thiab ntau tshaj li ib nrab ntawm tag nrho cov khoom xa tuaj tseem ua hauv tsev, feem ntau yog los ntawm cov neeg pab tsis tau txais kev pab. Kev sib txuas ntawm kev saib xyuas kev xeeb tub thiab kev tuag ntawm leej niam yog tsim tau zoo.

Cov kev pabcuam hauv tebchaws thiab cov phiaj xwm tau hais txog qhov xav tau kev tshuaj xyuas thoob ntiaj teb ntawm cov poj niam cev xeeb tub thiab kev ua haujlwm tseem ceeb thiab kev saib xyuas menyuam yaus thaum muaj xwm txheej ceev. Kev tsom mus rau kev saib xyuas menyuam yaus, kev npaj yug me nyuam thiab kev npaj muaj teeb meem, kev tuaj koom thaum yug me nyuam, kev saib xyuas hauv thawj xya hnub, thiab kev nkag mus rau kev saib xyuas thaum muaj xwm txheej ceev yog yam uas tuaj yeem pab txo cov niam txiv tuag. Ib lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb ntawm Tsoomfwv Is Nrias Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv thiab Tsev Neeg Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv yog txhawm rau txo cov niam txiv tuag thiab kev mob nkeeg. Lub hom phiaj tau hloov pauv los ntawm kev cuam tshuam ntawm tus kheej mus rau kev saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv ntawm kev yug me nyuam, uas suav nrog kev tuaj koom nrog kev yug me nyuam, kev ua haujlwm xa mus rau cov chaw xa mus thiab kev pabcuam 24 teev ntawm Lub Chaw Pabcuam Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv. thiab pib ntawm Janani Suraksha Yojna (National Maternity Benefit Scheme). Txoj haujlwm mus koom tib yam yog Lub Hom Phiaj Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv Hauv Nroog hauv EAG xeev thiab RCH II hauv lwm lub xeev.

Yog tias Is Nrias teb yuav ua tiav Lub Hom Phiaj Xyoo Ib Xyoos 5 (MDG 5) los ntawm 2015, ntxiv rau muab kev saib xyuas xwm txheej kub ntxhov thoob ntiaj teb rau txhua tus niam cev xeeb tub uas xav tau nws yuav tsum tau daws cov teeb meem tseem ceeb hauv zej zog thiab kev lag luam, xws li cov poj niam tsis tshua muaj xwm txheej, kev nkag siab tsis zoo ntawm ntau tsev neeg txog kev saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv, tus nqi ntawm kev saib xyuas zoo li no, thiab kuj yog tus qauv qis

Cov tswv yim uas yuav tsum tau txais yog

o Txhim kho kev suav nrog. Ob pawg tseem ceeb – cov poj niam txom nyem thiab cov tub ntxhais hluas -yuav tsum tau coj mus rau hauv cov kev pabcuam kev noj qab haus huv ntawm menyuam yaus los ntawm thaj chaw thiab tsev neeg lub hom phiaj thiab kev nthuav qhia kom meej. Kev sib raug zoo thiab poj niam txiv neej rhiab heev ntawm cov neeg muab kev pabcuam, cov thawj coj thiab cov neeg tsim txoj cai yog qhov tseem ceeb kom ua tiav qhov kev suav no, nrog rau cov khoom siv thiab kev xav tau kev txhim kho hauv qab no.

o Txhim kho cov khoom siv. Txhim kho kev muab kev pabcuam rau txhua theem ntawm lub neej kev ua menyuam yaus, rau qhov kev sib koom ua ke ntawm cov pob khoom tseem ceeb thiab muab kev pabcuam rau cov neeg siv khoom txuas ntxiv ntawm kev saib xyuas yog txoj hauv kev zoo. Plaub qhov kev pabcuam tau raug tsis saib xyuas tshwj xeeb thiab xav tau kev saib xyuas ntxiv hauv cov ntsiab lus no: kev tawm tsam kev rho menyuam tawm tsis zoo, kev tawm tswv yim thiab kev saib xyuas, kev saib xyuas tom qab yug menyuam, thiab kev kuaj mob RTI / STI thiab kev kho mob. Kev txhim kho kev muaj thiab kev ua tau zoo ntawm cov poj niam ua haujlwm hauv pem hauv ntej los ntawm kev nrhiav neeg ua haujlwm thiab / lossis kev cog lus hauv, kev cob qhia, kev txhawb nqa thiab kev txhawb nqa kev ua haujlwm yuav pab ua kom tiav ntau yam kev xav tau, thaum cog lus tawm ntawm cov kev pabcuam thiab lwm cov neeg siv khoom / tus neeg muab kev pabcuam them nyiaj tuaj yeem ua rau muaj ntau ntxiv. kev saib xyuas rau cov poj niam pluag.

o Nce kev thov. Kev thov ntau ntxiv rau ntau qhov kev pabcuam uas tau muab tab sis siv tsis tau, xws li ANC, IFA, kev xa khoom hauv tsev thiab kev npaj tsev neeg (txawm tias cov khoom yuav muaj kev txwv hauv qee qhov chaw). Ntxiv nrog rau ‘tus cwj pwm hloov kev sib txuas lus,’ kev thov nyiaj txiag yog qhov tseem ceeb kom ua tiav qhov no.

o Kev hloov kho kev noj qab haus huv rau kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov menyuam yaus. Raws li kev hloov kho nyob rau hauv kev noj qab haus huv sector, kev xa khoom thiab nyiaj txiag ntawm cov kev pabcuam kev noj qab haus huv rau menyuam yaus tsim nyog tshwj xeeb. Kev hloov pauv yog qhov tsim nyog tshwj xeeb hauv peb thaj chaw los txhawb cov txheej txheem saum toj no txhawm rau txhim kho kev muaj menyuam yaus. Decentralized kev npaj thiab kev faib cov peev txheej, kev tsim kho tib neeg, thiab kev txhim kho nyiaj txiag yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev siv lub hom phiaj, kev sib koom ua ke ntawm cov kev pabcuam, kev txhim kho kev tsim khoom, kev tsom mus rau cov neeg siv khoom, kev xav tau tsim, thiab kev nthuav dav zoo.

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