Accident In Nd That Killed 2 And 4 Yr Old Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part II

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Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part II


The passage under discussion is about comfort in time of suffering and is divided into three points : Believers’ source of all comfort is God the Father; Believers are comforted through Jesus Christ the Son and they are comforted to comfort others. After his usual introductory formula (v 1-2), Paul continues with a note of praise to God, the source of all comfort.

God the Father is the Source of all comfort (vv 3-4)

The beauty of verse three is in the realization that “the epistle , which more than any other bears marks of heavy trials, begins with an outburst of praise… For the trials did but reveal the compassions of God” (Beet 1989,31), a reminder of James 1:2ff.

Paul begins the passage with a doxology : “praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ”. He must have learnt that “praise is an important factor in achieving victory over discouragement and depression. ‘Praise changes things’ just as much as ‘prayer changes things'” (Wiersbe 1989,628).

The word ‘blessed’ is a Jewish ascription of praise to God which “belongs to a doxological type of expression that is derived from an Old Testament and Jewish traditional form of prayer” (Balz and Schneider 1981,80). The term is a glorification of God as the source of all blessing. It “acknowledges God as the source of all blessing” (Rogers and Rogers 1988, 392). He is blessed, being the object of His creatures’ blessing.

The full liturgical name ‘the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ’ is clearly revealed. The name is a concentrated confession since it contains all that the Scriptures reveal regarding our Saviour-God. The use of the word ‘and’ has a problematic translation in King James. Although the translation ‘God, even the Father…’ is possible, it is not as appropriate as ‘God and the Father’. In the researcher’s estimation, translating ‘kai’ as ‘and’ rather than ‘even’ is more appropriate it better suggests that Paul places equal weight or emphasis on the two nouns it connects, ‘God’ and “Father”.

God is specifically identified as the ‘God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ’ which reveals everything was Christocentric for Paul. Thus, the way one knows and experiences God is through His Son, Jesus Christ, ‘our Lord’.

Only one article is used in ‘the God and Father’. This is the regular way of joining concepts into a unity which means that the genitive ‘the Lord’ naturally belongs to this unity, to God as much as much as to Father. The use of ‘our’ demonstrates Paul’s solidarity with the church under the Lordship of Christ. is ‘God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ’ is also ”the Father of mercies and God of all comfort’. The genitives used in this verse “cannot be exclusive as though as Father and not as God the compassions belong to him, and as God and not as Father the compassions produce the comforting, neither is ever without the other” (Lenski 1955, 815). He is both merciful and active in comforting. Lange observes that “these genitives intimate that God was the source from which both the mercies and every comfort must proceed….” (Lange 1960,11).

The use of the phrase ‘the Father of mercies’ is deliberate. Particular reference is made to the use of the plural form of the word ‘mercy’. This is a reflection on thanking God for his immeasurable mercy. Paul had experienced that deep compassion of a father who gives mercy a totally new name and who loves a needy son and extends this mercy to him in the midst of his sufferings. To the Jewish people, the phrase, ‘father of’, means ‘originator of’. God is therefore seen as the Father of mercies because mercy originates from Him and can be secured only from Him.

Interestingly, God in His grace gives what is not deserved and in His mercy does not give what is deserved.

Furthermore, God is also described as ‘and God of all comfort’, the One from whom all consolation proceeds. God’s mercy results in his comfort being shown. The Greek word for comfort comes from two Latin words which means ‘with strength’. The Greek word means ‘to come alongside and help’. This is the same word used for the Holy Spirit (“the Comforter”) in John 14-16. This word translated ‘paraclete’ refers to “one who stands beside.”

Wiersbe argues that “we must not think of comfort in terms of ‘sympathy’ because sympathy can weaken us instead of strengthen us” (1989, 629). This is because God puts strengths into our hearts so that we can face suffering and triumph. The word comfort seems to have lost much of its New Testament meaning. Present day meaning suggests a kind of sedative, a palliative for pain of body or mind. This is a misnomer.

Paul generally uses three phrases in his reference to God as the source of all comfort. Just as grace and peace come from ‘God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ’ (verse 2), so his comfort comes from the ‘Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of compassion and the God of all comfort’. An important lesson from verse three is that “there is a profound intimacy in Paul’s description of God our Father. It is true for all Christians: we often come to know our God best through suffering” (Lamb 1999, 28).

Paul deliberately uses the term ‘comfort’ several times in a few verses.

Paul must have known he was repeating, but he did not care. He wanted that thought of God’s comfort to get into his friends’ minds so they could not forget it, like a tune played many times. Paul uses the word as either a noun or verb not less than ten times in four sentences. He makes it plain, too, that God’s comfort is not given us to be enjoyed but to be passed on (Foremann 1961, 119).

He concentrated on the inevitable of suffering. He urged his readers to expect it, anticipate it, plan on and deal with it. He also wanted his readers to know that Christians can deal with trouble because we have every reason to praise God, who is the God of all comfort. A writer confesses that “among all the names that reveal God, this ‘God of all comfort’, seems to me one of the loveliest and the most absolutely comforting. The words all comfort admit of no limitations and no deductions” (Smith 1997, 30).

The fourth verse continues the idea contained in the previous one. Ideas in this verse are revamped in the sixth and seventh. God is seen as the one ‘who comforts us in all our troubles’. Paul signifies that the comforting comes ‘upon the tribulation’. The Greek word means ‘distress’ that is caused by spiritual pressure, and the comforting consists in the help that removes that pressure so that one breathes again or so that one is able to bear the distress without fainting.

The use of the word, ‘eis’ with the infinitive ‘dunasthai’ in the phrase, ‘eis te dunasthai’ expresses purpose, intended result, or actual result. Lenski observes that “any of these three would serve here although some prefer purpose” (1955, 816). Those who are in affliction could be seen in a general perspective as it extends beyond the Corinthians since Paul and Timothy had extensive fields of labour. By extension, all readers of the epistle are included.

The word ‘dia’ in the phrase ‘dia tes parakleseus’ expresses means, but it would be misleading to conclude that this means is Paul; rather it is the comforting act, the agent of which is carefully expressed by ‘upo’ in the phrase ‘upo tou theo’, the regular preposition to indicate the agent, and he is God. He does it for others in the same way He did it for Paul and Timothy when in distress.

In the portion ‘who comforts us in all our troubles’, the pronoun refers to Paul and Timothy. Paul and Timothy are comforted in distress, so that they may be able to comfort those who are in tribulation, through the comfort of which they themselves have received from God. In other words, “whatever grace God conferred, (they) considered granted, not for (them) alone, but that (they) might have the greater ability to help others” (Fausset 1973, 337). Timothy shares the affliction of Paul who implies that the comforting comes ‘upon the tribulation’. In the subsequent portion, the phrase ‘in all tribulation refers to ‘in every distress’ in general. ‘Our whole distress’ that has come upon us and ‘every distress’ that may come upon those we are to comfort are closely related.

The use of the present indicative passive ‘parakaloumetha’ points to the continual action or its iterative and points to the comfort received every time in trouble” (Rienecker and Rogers 1980, 450). We are made to understand that “the suffering of the innocent can benefit others” (Simundson 1980, 130). The suffering that brings comfort to others is appropriately described as “testimonial suffering” (Tenney 1996, 532). Although King James, Revised Standard Version and New International Version translations use ‘with the comfort’, the researcher believes that ‘through the comfort’ is a better rendition since ‘dia’ plus genitive means through. From his experiences, Paul “could now point … to the answers which his own prayers had received, to the rational foundation of a Christian’s confidence and hopes, and to the promises and tender assurances God had given to His people” (Lange 1960, 11). In this sense “the comfort we receive from God is specially designed to be in our lips a means of comfort to others” (Beet 1989,31).

The two uses of ‘pas’ must be specifically noted in verse four. Its first use with the article signifies “the whole of” in contrast with the second use which implies “every kind of”. In this first part of the verse, in the subsequent portion, he uses ‘en’ meaning ‘in the tribulation’.

Commenting on the meaning of this verse, Chaffin argues that one can still comfort without necessarily going through the same circumstances. In his observation, he observes that “I do not subscribe to the notion that in order really to identify with what a person is going through we have to have experienced it ourselves” (1985, 207). This is the reason why God comforts Christians – to be sure it is so that they experience His love and help, but that He also wants them to be conduits of that love, not storehouses.

Believers are comforted through Christ (v5)

Verses three and four demonstrate that the ability to praise God in the midst of suffering could only come from an experience of the strengthening comfort of God. Once Christians have experienced God’s mercy and comfort in the midst of suffering, they are better equipped to minister that same comfort to others. Paul links the suffering of Christ in the lives of believers to their comfort through Him.

In the first section, ‘for just as the sufferings of Christ, overflows into our lives’, the researcher suggests that the word ‘oti’ could have blurred the meaning had it been translated as ‘because’ instead of ‘for’. In other words, ‘for’ suggests a better reading rather than ‘because’ since the use of the latter would bring lead to some difficulty. Lenski realistically argues that “we put the break in thought, after verse 5, but after verse 4 and read together 5-7 so that ‘eti’ becomes the consecutivum” (1955, 819). There is a significant relationship between sufferings. It is noted that “sufferings (plural) are many, but the comfort (though singular) swallows up all” (Fausset 1973, 337).

All our tribulation is also connected with Christ in such a manner that Paul calls it ‘the sufferings of Christ’. An important distinction is made by Wiersbe when he observes that “there are some sufferings that we endure simply because we are human and subject to pain; but there are other sufferings that come because we are God’s people and want to serve Him” (1989, 827).

The word ‘pathemata’ (sufferings) has a passive sense. For this reason, Lenski argues that “the genitive may be regarded as subjective: the sufferings which Christ endured. These same sufferings, Paul says, now ‘abound in us’ (Paul and Timothy)” (1955, 821). The word ‘abound’ shows that the Christian is a fellow-sufferer with Christ, a thought that is frequently urged elsewhere by Paul (Rom. 8:17; Phil. 3:10; Col. 1:24).

The meaning of the second part of verse five, ‘so also through Christ our comfort overflows’, is a continuation of the idea expressed in the first section. 0If Christians are united with Christ in his suffering, they will also experience the abundance of God’s comfort overflowing in their lives through Christ. This mysterious relation of Christ and Christians implies that encouragement of the latter comes from the former. The sorrow and joy of Christians therefore have their cause in Christ’s death and resurrection.

This verse supplies the reason why suffering equips the Christian to mediate God’s comfort. Whenever Christ’s sufferings were multiplied in Paul’s life, God’s comfort was also multiplied through the ministry of Christ. In other words, “the greater the suffering, the greater the comfort and the greater the ability to share with others the divine sympathy” (Harris 1976, 320). Furthermore, Paul reaches the unspeakably precious and inspiring view of Christian suffering which sees it to be Christ’s, because it is essentially like his – borne for others. Paul here demonstrates that he knows the fellowship of Christ’s suffering made conformable unto His death.

Paul explains that suffering is the inevitable of being united to Christ when he observes that ‘for just as the sufferings of Christ flow into our lives’. Far from being evidence of Paul’s lack of spirituality, or casting doubt on the genuineness of his apostleship, “suffering was a badge of his discipleship, a clear indication that he was fulfilling his God-given ministry in serving Christ” (Lamb 1999, 29).

Verse five certainly does not imply that Christ’s suffering in securing our redemption needs extending or completing through the experience of Christians. His suffering was unique, complete, once and for all, as Paul explains in his letter to the Romans (Romans 6:10). Rather, Paul is describing the intimate relationship between Christ and those who bear his name. The Christian’s life is Christ’s life, with its suffering and also its eventual glory. This idea is supported elsewhere in Scripture (Romans 8:17; Philippians 3:10; 2 Timothy 2:12; 1 Peter 4:13).

In suffering, therefore, Christ is the leader and the sublime Example. A bitter truth is that “we are not always to have easy lives, when Jesus knew such titanic suffering” (Schaeffer 1973, 172). Every one who would help another must take into account that he may have to suffer in doing it.

Believers are comforted to comfort others (vv 6,7)

Verse five illustrates that Paul’s experience of suffering and comfort flows from belonging to Christ and sharing in His ministry. The central idea in verses 6 and 7 (part of which is in verse 4) deals with suffering and the Christian community. The phrase ‘if we are distressed, it is for your comfort and salvation’, is probably the most important section in the next two verses. Falwell and Hindson observe that “everything else, in these verses, is subordinated to these two main ideas. Paul does not glory in suffering per se, but he knows that fact that the suffering identifies us with Christ and His Church” (1978, 435). The use of ‘olibometha’ (we are under tribulation) shows that Paul is identifying himself with Timothy and is not taking credit or exhibiting self-righteousness. How can the distress of Paul and Timothy be for the comfort and salvation of the Corinthians? The researcher would like to commute the position of the words ‘salvation’ and ‘comfort’ so that the portion would now read, ‘if we are distressed, it is for your salvation and comfort. The effect of trading the places of these words is to clearly bring out the meaning of this section. The afflictions of Paul and Timothy in the course of their preaching the Gospel of Christ result in the salvation of those who hear the Gospel. This, of course, included the Corinthians. Thus they owe their salvation- which eventually brought them comfort and the experience of God’s presence- as it were, to the distresses of the apostles.

The idea of verse four is revamped in the sixth verse when it is observed that ‘if we are comforted, it is for your comfort’. Translating ‘eiteh’ as ‘if’ rather than ‘whether’ clearly suggests the hypothetical nature of the section. Comforting does not take place by chance or for no other attached reason. If one is comforted, there is a reason or a responsibility. One is expected to look at others and meaningfully say, “I know just how you feel, and the Lord pulled me out of the same spot so wonderfully. I can go on without my leg and discover a terrific variety of things to do with only one leg….” (Schaeffer 1973, 172). What is received is the comfort which produces in you patient endurance of the same sufferings we suffer.

The Greek word ‘energoumenes’ (present middle or passive participle of ‘energeo’ denotes here efficacious, operating to or producing. The word ‘the same’ does not imply that the sufferings of Paul and the Corinthians were literally the same. If such a view is held, then the phrase ‘we also’ would be directly opposed to the interpretation of the verse, and ‘in the enduring’ would hardly seem appropriate to it. The word ‘upomone’ is used of the endurance of which has come upon man against his will. Rienecker observes that “in classical Greek, it is used also of the ability of a plant to live under hard and unfavorable circumstances” (1980, 451). The genitive plural of the personal pronoun ‘ton’ is used instead of the accusative “because of the attraction to the antecedent (‘the same sufferings’) (Rogers and Rogers 1998, 392). The salvation of the Corinthians would be effected, wrought out, or secured by the patient endurance of such sufferings. Those sufferings were necessary; and a patient endurance of them would tend to promote their salvation. Barnes rightly notes that “the doctrine that patient endurance of affliction tends to promote salvation, is everywhere taught in the Bible” (1962, 810). The fact that Paul is comforted in his sufferings, demonstrates to the Corinthians that they too can be comforted by God. The mention of this fact, though one is ignorant of the particular sufferings of the Corinthians, awakens them to the possibility of God’s comfort. The end result is that everything God did through Paul was both for his benefit as well as the benefit of the Corinthians.

From the foregoing, a reasonable comment is that suffering in not necessarily an accident. It would appear as if everything is a divine appointment for the believer. In his summary of verses 5 and 6, three possible outlooks a person can take when it comes to the trials of life are identified :

If our trials are the products of ‘fate’ and ‘chance’, then our only recourse is to give up. Nobody can control fate or chance. If we have to control everything ourselves, then the situation is equally as hopeless. But if God is control, and we trust Him, then we can overcome circumstances with His help (Wiersbe 1989,629).

Generally, the sentiment expressed in this verse is that the eternal welfare of the Corinthians would be promoted by the example of the apostles in their trials, and by the consolations which they would be able to impart as the result of their afflictions. Paul was able to say that his own experience of suffering would prove to be a benefit to the Corinthian believers in this verse, a point echoed later in chapter 4, verses 5 and 15.

From the sixth verse, one does not need to ask about affliction and suffering among the Corinthians and the Achaians. They were certainly no exception when they were compared with other Christians. The only question is whether Paul refers to griefs that were caused him by the Corinthians and then also to griefs of the Corinthians, both such as unruly and misled brethren caused the faithful brethren in Corinth and such as Paul had to cause by correcting them. Jesus endured a lot from the twelve. For instance, one may think of the pain Philip caused him (John 14:8,9), of Peter’s frequent rashness which was so trying to Jesus, of Peter’s denial, and ultimately that of Judas. The Gospels record many rebukes by Jesus. Lenski argues that “these things are in a way constantly repeated. The injuries inflicted by those who are outside are less painful than the injuries inflicted by those who are inside” (Lenski 1955, 132).

The ultimate verse in the pericope, verse seven, end on a very positive note: ‘and our hope for you is firm’. The use of ‘and’ in the first section in verse seven is very important since it bridges the preceding and succeeding discussion. Unfortunately, the beauty of this link is not felt if one is reading from the Revised Standard Version since the word is omitted. This link is clearly seen in versions like King James and New International Version since the word is retained. The exchange of comfort and the resulting greater patience and endurance are something to be continued as life goes on – a central portion of the relationship among Christians. This is to be “a constant repeated experience, the need for comfort and the giving of comfort to others” (Schaeffer 1973, 173).

Describing his hope for them as ‘firm’, Paul is making use of “a commercial term meaning gilt-edged, secure and reliable” (Lamb 1999, 30). Since the sufferings Paul refers to are unique to the Christian- sufferings the Christian undergoes in consequence of being a Christian in a fallen world- and the Corinthians are sharing in these sufferings, Paul’s hope is firm; he is ultra confident. The God of all comfort has not failed him, and neither will God fail the Corinthians.

A close study of verse seven reveals that the last section ‘because we know that just as you share in our sufferings, so also you share in our comfort’ is a smooth reading from the previous section above. There is no anacoluthon (a construction involving a break in grammatical sequence) in ‘eidotes’ since ‘our’ precedes. The researcher supports Lenski in the observation that “grammatically all is in smooth order, and no apology is in place. In order to be really firm hope must rest on knowledge. This knowledge is not necessarily the information that was brought from Corinth by Titus. “This hope of ours” has a more solid basis. It was in the heart of Paul and of Timothy before Titus arrived; it was only confirmed by his good report. If Titus had brought bad news, he who wrote’ “love hopeth all things” (I Cor. 13:7), would still have hoped on and in this hope have worked for Corinth. Paul and Timothy knew how the sufferings and the comforting go together, as in their case so also in the case of the Corinthians, in the experiences through which they were passing. The two genitives are objective.

Strict grammarians may want to argue that the participle in this verse should have been in the genitive plural since it would have agreed with the ‘amon’ of the preceding clause. But it would then more properly have been construed with the immediately antecedent; the nominative plural is no doubt influenced by those implied in three verbs in verse six. The break is so slight that it reads not unnaturally, and in addition it serves, whether intentionally or otherwise, to remove any ambiguity. It should probably not be classified as an absolute participle, standing here for an indicative, though such usage is not foreign to this epistle.

The community emphasis of suffering and comfort is emphasized by Paul’s use of the word for fellowship and partnership. If Christians are united to Christ, there is a sense therefore in which they are united to one another. In otherwords, “Christians are bound to Christ and bound to every other believer” (Lamb 1999, 29). This is the community dimension to Christian experience. Paul is absolutely certain that the Corinthians will experience divine comfort which will sustain them in their difficulties.

Although manuscripts differ in the order of the clauses in verse 6 (and seven), the sense in every clause is basically the same. This verse both restates and applies the second part of verse 4. Paul’s suffering of affliction and endurance of trial ultimately benefited the Corinthians in that he was thereby equipped to administer divine encouragement to them when they were afflicted and to ensure their preservation when they underwent trial. According to Barnes, “this verse is designed to show one of the reasons of the sufferings which the apostles had endured; and it is a happy specimen of Paul’s skill in his epistles” (1962, 810). The apostle then makes explicit what he has assumed in the first part of verse 6 in arguing from his own experience of suffering to the experience of comfort and deliverance of the Corinthians. Whether he suffered affliction or whether he received comfort, the advantage remained the same for the Corinthians. They too “would know an inner revitalization, an infusion of divine strength that would enable them to endure patiently the same type of trial that confronted Paul” (Harris 1976, 320).

From the above verse, it is made clear that Christians shall rejoice together if they suffer together. Those who share mutual suffering and affliction share also in the joy of consolation. This relationship of intimacy “implied by the apostle’s terminology stands in stark contrast to the divisible spirit that persisted in Corinth. His readers could not help but compare their own situation against the feelings and experiences expressed by Paul” (Falwell and Hindson 1978,435).


From the periscope, a realistic summary is that God is the Father of all comfort who comforts those united with Christ in order that they would eventually comfort those who are suffering. From experience, the researcher believes that it is never easy to objectively assess how God can see one through a particular kind of suffering. What must be borne in mind is that “it is good to remember when the pressure is on that God redeems those moments, using them for his good purposes of strengthening others in the Christian family” (Lamb 1999, 30).

It is characteristic of St. Paul’s writing to be dominated as it were by a single word or phrase. For instance, in Colossians 1:28, the phrase ‘every man’ is used thrice. In the passage under consideration, II Corinthians 1:3-7, the use of ‘parakalon’, present active participle) is forceful. It clearly portrays God as the One who stands besides to comfort. It is incredible to note the deliberate usage of the verb which has several shades of meaning, some of these include: “To beseech, eighteen times in St. Paul; to exhort, seventeen; to comfort, thirteen times, of which seven are in this Epistle, where the word occurs altogether seven times (cf. 1:6; 2:7-8, 20; 6:1; 7:6-7, 13; 8:6; 9:5; 10:1;12:8,18)”(Bernard n.d., 38).

The last meaning above is the one that is clearly expressed in this passage. The passage, II Corinthians 1:3-7, comments on the comfort received from God in times of suffering. God is seen as the God of comfort. There are reasons for the apostle’s thanksgiving. His companions and himself had received benefits from God. They had trouble in the world but peace in Christ. Their sufferings, aptly called ‘the sufferings of Christ’, abound but their consolation by Christ did abound also. From the passage, it appears as if one speaks best of God and His goodness when it is done from one’s experience, and, in telling others, tell God also what He has done for one’s soul. The favours God bestows are intended not just to make one’s self cheerful, but also to be useful to others.


Balz, Horst and Gerhard Schneider, eds. 1981. Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 2.

Grand Rapids, Michigan : William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Barnes, Albert. 1962. Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Kregel


Beet, Joseph Agar. 1989. A Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistles to the Corinthians, Vol. 2. Salem,

Ohio : Schmul Publishing Co.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1985. 1,2 Corinthians. In The Communicator’s Commentary. Cambridge :

Cambridge University Press.

Farwell, Jerry and Edward E. Hindson. 1978. Liberty Commentary on the New Testament. Lynchburg,

Virginia : Liberty Press.

Fausett, A.R. 1973. I Corinthians to Revelation. In A commentary, critical, Experimental and practical

on the Old and New Testaments, vol. 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan : W.B. Eerdmans Publishing


Foreman, Kenneth J. 1961. The Letter of Paul to the Romans, the First Letter of Paul to the

Corinthians, the Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. In The layman’s Bible Commentary, vol.

21. 112-152. Richmond, Virginia : John Knox Press.

Harris, Murray J. 1976. 2 Corinthians. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids,

Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House : 301-406.

Lamb, Jonathan. 1999. 2 Corinthians : Crossway Bible Guide. Leicester : Crossway Books.

Lange, J.P. 1960. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal and Homilectical : Romans

and Corinthians, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Lenski, R.C.H. 1955. The Interpretation of St. Paul’s First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians.

Columbus, Ohio : Wartburg Press.

Rahner, Karl and Herbert Vorgrimler. 1990. Dictionary of Theology. 2nd ed. New York : The

Crossroad Publishing Company.

Rienecker, Fritz. 1980. A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan :

Reference Library.

Rogers, Cleon L. Jr. and Cleon L. Rogers III. 1988. The New Linguistic Key to the Greek New

Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Schaeffer, E. 1973. Affliction. Old Tappan, New Jersey : Fleming H. Revell Company.

Simundson, Daniel J. 1980. Faith Under Fire. Minneapolis : Augsburg Publishing.

Smith, Hannah Whitall. 1997. The God of all Comfort. Chicago : Moody Press.

Tenney, Merrill C. 1985. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans

Publishing Company.

Wiersbe, Warren W. 1989. The Bible Exposition Commentary, vol. 1. Wheaton, Illinois : Victor


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