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The Oldest Known Galaxy – So Far – Is Bursting With Stars
In astronomy, there is almost constant publication of the latest data on the most distant and, therefore, the oldest objects that have not been found in the Cosmos – count with galaxies, quasars, supernovae, etc. In October, 2013 astronomers announced that they had found the most distant, star galaxy ever seen-go away! However, the old star, very far from the galaxy stands out in the crowd, because it did not exist when we were almost 14 billion years ago, the world was just a child – it also see the brightness caused by frenetic star birth. In fact, he has already experienced the amazing birth and death of many generations of stars when the world is a “mere” 700 million years of age!
By using the information collected by the venerable Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and analysis obtained from the Keck my telescope of Keck Observatory, On top of Mauna Kea in Hawaii, a group of astronomers confirmed the galaxy, blandly dubbed z8_GND_5296, came into being in the 700 million years after our inflationary Big Bang birth. This makes it the most recent record holder to hold the title of the oldest and most distant galaxy ever recognized.
Because the galaxy is very far away from our planet, the astronomers have found z8_GND_5296 as it was about 13.1 billion years ago.
“The most exciting part of what I do is the fact that we can learn about what things were like in the early Universe. Because the speed of light is constant, light takes time to here, we’re not seeing these. galaxies as they are now. We’re seeing them as they were 13 billion years ago which is 95 percent of the way back to the Big Bang,” Dr. Steven Finkelstein explained on October 23, 2013. Space.com. Dr. Finkelstein, an astronomer at the University of Texas at Austin, is the lead author of a new galaxy study published in the October 24, 2013 issue of the journal. Nature.
billions and billions of flashing stars light up more than 100 billion galaxies of our visible world on fire. The visible–or observable–the universe is that too Small part of the whole unimaginably huge Cosmos that we can do see. This is because the light that reaches us from regions far beyond our Cosmic visibility has not had enough time to reach us since the Big Bang.
The star-blazing galaxies ignited a long time ago, and began to illuminate the primordial world less than a billion years after the Bang that set everything in motion. The most popular theory of galaxy formation, playfully dubbed the “bottom-up” model, suggests that large galaxies were rare in the early universe, and they gradually grew to their size small when they mix with smaller, protogalactic structures. The earliest galaxies are only about one-tenth the size of our massive, barred spiral Milky Way, but their light shines through the dark space between galaxies. This is because they are furiously churning out billions of fiery, extremely hot and luminous baby stars. These very bright, tiny ancient galactic blobs are the “seeds” that eventually grow into the large, mature galaxies that dazzle our world today.
In the primordial world, opaque air merged together with large, heavy filaments made of transparent, invisible material that is called the the darkness. Those the darkness filaments form the backbone of the great Cosmic Web and, although the identity of the mysterious saying that caused the the darkness don’t know, the darkness It will not be composed of the badly misnamed “ordinary” atomic matter, which is the material of stars, galaxies, planets, the moon, people, and all the elements of the universe. . Time period. In fact, the so-called “ordinary” atomic matter, or baryonic mattermaking up a trifling 4% of the mass-energy content of the Cosmos.
It is thought that the first ancient galaxies are opaque, dark, amorphous structure, consisting of air, pooling in the secretive mind. dark halos. The mysterious, dark, primordial blobs dragged in the first group of bright new stars, with their heavy and heavy pull. The star fiery and searing-hot, glowing, raging gas, shining as what was previously a murky expanse, set the edge of fire with bright, beautiful light.
Slowly, relentlessly, the turbulent cloud of primordial gases and transparent, mysterious, invisible. the darknessspread throughout the ancient world, mixing together to create familiar, distinct patterns that can be seen today.
Exploding with stars
The discovery of z8_GND_5296 suggests that the ancient world may have experienced more wild star births than scientists previously believed. A distant, ancient galaxy, photo by HST, It is much brighter than most distant galaxies. Astronomers determined from its extreme red-ultraviolet color that it was enriched with “metal” – which in astronomical jargon means all atomic elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Because all “metal” is born from nuclear fusion occurring in the hot heart of a fiery star, and then thrown away when the star breaks itself into shreds as supernovae, the This discovery shows that the distant, ancient galaxy has been seen. birth and death of many generations of stars during the time the world is a bouncy, young 700 million years.
Dr. Finkelstein noted, on October 23, 2013 space.com, which astronomers see z8_GND_5296 as he once was, long ago, when he was young. Many of the old stars that danced in the galaxy seem to still be around the world today –but they may be the denizens of a larger galaxy!
HST may see more distant galaxies z8_GND_5296but it is the most distant galaxy yet to be confirmed by scientific observations using other astronomical instruments.
For now, The HST Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy (CANDELS) survey has seen approximately 100,000 galaxies, and Dr. Finkelstein’s team of astronomers found 43 of them for this new study.
The discovery is based on emissions from hydrogen atoms that occur when the energy falls back to the ground. The team of astronomers looked for a hydrogen emission line in 43 galaxies they studied, but they only found the emission line inside. z8_GND_5296. This observation is surprising, because the astronomers expected to see about half a dozen galaxies that show this radiation.
“This work shows that, with new technology, it is finally becoming important in the discovery of more distant galaxies,” said Dr. Dominik Riechers wrote on October 23, 2013. Space.com. Dr. Riechers is an astronomer who wrote the introduction to the new study.
“However, the work also mentions that they want to see six galaxies at a similar distance, but are only able to confirm one. So, we know now that we will have able to push the frontiers in the science of the early universe further, but it may be more difficult than expected,” he added.
It is possible that astronomers obtained these results by looking back in “the time when the Earth has changed from an opaque state, in which most of the hydrogen gas of galaxies is neutral, to a translucent state, in which most of the hydrogen gas is ionized, “representatives from the University of Texas at Austin said in October 23, 2013 statement to the press.
One of the most interesting products of z8_GND_5296 yes, of course, his staggeringly high rate of birth. The apparent star formation in this distant galaxy is more than 100 times that of our own Milky Way, and more than 30 times what would be expected in galaxies facing the Sun. old design. This galaxy is churning out new baby stars at a furious, frenetic rate.
Another amazing discovery is that the galaxy has a surprising amount of heavy elements – about 30% of what is found in our sun. Because these elements are only formed as a result of supernovae dying of massive stars, this discovery shows that environmental star-formation and star-death are occurring. less than 700 million years after the Bang.
The team of astronomers admirably managed to put together all the odd threads into a coherent tapestry. Heavy elements – “metals” – make stars easier to form. This is because “iron” helps to radiate out the initial energy of the gravitational collapse of the star. In the earliest times of distant galaxy formation, shortly after the Big Bang, it had no “metal” whatsoever, which allowed gravity to pull in large amounts of gas before the first days. old born In the absence of “metal”, these new stars have grown to a large size, and they are also very unstable – they break themselves into smithereens in supernovae explosions very quickly, which quickly get The galaxy content of heavy atomic elements up to it is also very good. level.
These “metals” make the formation of more stars easier, and therefore cause the explosion of the birth of the sun that the astronomers see. In addition, the star creates ionized dense atmosphere in and around the distant galaxy itself, allowing its light to escape the intergalactic space.
This good story makes sense. However, more than one model is needed to show what this model really is.
The new secretary, z8_GND_5296, is in the same area of the sky as the previous record-holder. Past record holders have also been found to have many birth stars.
“It could be that we saw two strangers, but now we have seen two strangers in the same Hubble picture in a small area of the sky. More than likely, they are not weirdos. I think what it has shown us is that in the distant universe you can make a number of galaxies,” Dr. Finkelstein said on October 23, 2013. Space.com.
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